The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists


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The Apries Palace, Memphis

Maria Helena Trindade Lopes and Maria Fonseka


Kôm Tumân is situated north of Mit Rahîna and south of the modern cemetery of Sheikh Said in Kôm The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Aziz. The site covers approximately 220 000 m2 and today is bordered southwest by the Ezbet Gabry village.The Palace rises at the northwest corner of the vast plain, built on an artificial hill and about The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists 13.66 m high. This platform is founded on a net of thick adobe walls whose gaps were filled with debris, broken ceramics and pieces of stone, in order to produce a solid The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists, strong base for the upper constructions.

This great structure was built with adobe and stone, and its dimensions can be calculated according to the sections of limestone columns and capitals The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists located on the upper level. The walls, which Petrie described as approx. 4 m thick (Petrie, 1909:1), were мейд of adobe and sustained with stone on the lower sector. The floor, the thresholds and The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists the steps were also мейд of stone. The access to the Palace was done through the south, by a colossal ramp 87 m wide. The main entrance led directly to a bridge over a The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists ditch, which was about 3 m wide and bounded by curbs. Once the bridge was crossed, the internal activity at the Palace was done through two corridors. To the left of the “new corridor” was The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists the house of the guards and the kitchen, and to the right there were several compartments (Petrie, 1909:2). From the “old corridor”, also encircled by unidentified compartments, there was direct access to the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Great Royal Room. The northern part of the Palace corresponds to the “Mandara”, which was built following an adobe cellular structure, with an oval plan and probably cupolas (Kemp, 1977:103).

Annexed The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists to the Palace laid the “Military ground” of Apriés, spreading out to northwest, east and southeast, where several mercenary groups might have lodged, especially Greeks and Carians. The entire area The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists, covering Palace and Ground, was fortified and the fencing walls show a 10 m width on the base. In his excavations, Petrie also detected a large gate, on the northeast side of the fortification The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists (Petrie, 1909b:12, pl. XXX). As mentioned before, this site was in the past subject to two excavations and two probes. M. Daninos Pacha (Pacha, 1904: 142-143) completed the first excavation, in 1901-1902, working on the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists west area of the Palace platform. W.F. Petrie led the second and most important excavation (1909-1910), and his works exposed the fortified palace and the access ramp (Petrie, 1909: 1-5; Petrie, 1910: 40-41). The brilliant English archaeologist also The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists probed the fencing wall, which may have been repaired in the Ptolemaic or Roman periods (Jeffreys, 1985: 41), at an unidentified area in the field, to the east (Jeffreys, 1985:42).

According to The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Petrie, the Apriés Palace was built over the most ancient palaces (Petrie, 1909: 1; Petrie, 1910: 40-41). Although Petrie wasn’t able to confirm his intuition, the objects and the painted ceramics of the New Empire that The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists were found and referred to by Petrie and Kemp can lead us to determine which New Empire installations were used to build the palace, specially if the foundations were built with trenches (Jeffreys The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists, 1985: 43). In 1978, B.J. Kemp directed probes at the palace, for two days (Kemp, 1977: 101-108), and he verified that the hill on which it stood was artificial, as Petrie had claimed. Finally The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists, in 1989, within the project “Survey of Memphis” of the Egypt Exploration Society, the EES мейд 18 probe drills to the west, southeast and northwest of Kôm Tumân (Giddy, Jeffreys and The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Malek, 1990: pic. 2) and, according to the results, the foundations of the Apriés palace, at the west side, were longer than the ones calculated by Petrie in the beginning of the century (Giddy, Jeffreys and The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Malek, 1990: 12).

The Portuguese team from the Faculty of Social and Human Sciences of the Universidade Nova de Lisboa, led by Maria Helena Trindade Lopes, began working in Kôm Tum The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologistsân in 2000, having completed five stays up until now. During these stays, we carried out probes in order to confirm the data supplied by Kemp and Jeffreys. We photographed and registered all The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists the existing objects in the ground, verified the structure of the palace according to Petrie’s and Kemp’s drawings, and excavated the north area between the Palace and the north fencing wall The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists, to assess its date of construction, which was established to be contemporary to the Palace. We have also studied all the material that was discovered, whose dating supports Petrie’s theories of The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists occupations and building activities prior to the Apriés ruling, namely the New Empire. Finally, all that remains to be carried out is to explore the structure identified by Petrie, at The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists the field to the east, which is probably concealing a great stone monument from an earlier period. These assumptions are rooted on the prospecting and topographic works developed during our five stays.


^ Isis on The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists magical Amulets in Late Antiquity


Eleni Tsatsou


In ancient Egyptian tradition we often meet the use of amulets related with funerary ceremonies. The Book of the Dead informs us about the way that The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists ancient Egyptians produced and used such amulets as the “Tiet” or “Isis knot”. This amulet was placed around the neck of the mummy of the deceased and was believed to curry the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists protection of the goddess in the netherworld. By the era of New Kingdom, the Egyptians hung a golden amulet that depicts an image of a vulture, a bird related to Isis, around the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists neck of the mummy. The goddess, taking the form of a vulture, protected her son Horus, and, via the use of the amulet, in the same way, she was going to The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists protect the dead man in the netherworld. In late Hellenistic Egypt, Isis’s picture was very often engraved on Graeco Egyptian gems, together with the pictures of Osiris or Sarapis and Nephthis The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists or alone holding her young son Horus, on her breast.

Sometimes, she appeared having characteristics of other deities of the Egyptian or Greek Pantheon. The kind of amulets in which we recognize The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists the form of Isis are: 1. Love amulets, 2. Maternal amulets, 3. Healing amulets, 4. Amulets for general protection and good luck, and 5. Astrological amulets.

1. Love amulets

Isis, goddess of devotion, marital faith, and protector of the relation The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists between two persons that love each other, re-established the relationship of couples that are separated and satisfied the erotic wishes of unsatisfied lovers. This is the reason why most The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of the erotic love amulets are related to Isis. By the greek and roman times Venus, the greek goddess of love was related to Isis. That is the reason why Isis many The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists times appeared emerging from the sea.

^ 2. Amulets that protect maternity

The picture of Mother-Isis that embraces her beloved son Horus, is common on the amulets of Graeco Roman times. Sometimes, next to Isis The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists appeared the deformed but likeable god Bes. Later in the greek and roman times, Isis was presented sitting on a chair with a tall back, holding Horus in her arms or on her The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists lap. Many times her breasts ccould ber seen naked, as she was trying to feed little Horus.150 A type of amulet that portrays a group of deities around something like an oval The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists vessel is of great interest. This kind of gems may be readily assigned to the class of uterine amulets. This oval vessel is probably a uterus, and all the presented The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists deities in some way are connected with maternity. Prominent here is Isis’s presence. These fertility amulets declared that the divine world was the one that directed and supervised the process of The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists birth and death.151

^ 3. Healing amulets

Despite the fact that Isis was particularly related to cure and healing, her presence on healing amulets was not very frequent. Even if we often meet Isis with her The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists son Horus-Harpokratis in the therapeutic columns and statuettes that the Egyptians placed in their house, she appears only a few times on the healing amulets. Among these, a The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists fertility amulet is of great interest, because it bears the inscription: "επί ποδία". The amulet mended to protect or heal its owner from some foot-illness.152 Very interesting is Isis appearance as goddess Hegieia (Υγεία), holding a snake The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists in her хэнд.153

^ 4. Amulets for general protection and good luck

This kind of gems was used in order to protect their holders from envy or bring good luck. On many amulets, that Isis The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists is present, holding a torch or a piece of cloth in her хэнд there are brief exclamations such as: “νικά η Ίσις” or “Ο Σεραπις νικά τον φθόνο”.154 In an extraordinary amulet in a prismatic form Isis is holding The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists in her right arm something uncertain and in her left a torch. There are the inscriptions: "Ζευ άγιε" and "αποστρεψικακε". These invocations protected the wearer from evil forces.155 Texts of the Μagical Papyri have sometimes much The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists in common with the Greco-Egyptian gems. On a amulet, the goddess appeared to sit on a crocodile, with her right хэнд stretched out, as if she had been The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists begging for something. This jesture reminds us of the “little beggar” formula, from the Greek Magical Papyri. The recipe describes the manufacture of statue-amulets that ensure in their holders, wealth and success The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists in their work, good look and prosperity.156

^ 5. The astrological amulets

It Greco Roman times Isis was considered as the "overseer of the world". Her figure was present in many astrological amulets. There are gems The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists from this era that depict Isis and Sarapis in the centre of the Zodiac.157


^ The underwater survey of the Greek mission in Alexandria: 1998-2007 seventeen campaigns


Harry E. Tzalas


The Hellenic Institute of Ancient The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists and Mediaeval Alexandrian Studies has obtained a concession from the Supreme Council of Antiqutities of Egypt, for an underwater archaeological survey of the sea area extending eastwards of Cape Silsileh, in Alexandria The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists. The total length of the littoral to be surveyed is 17 kilometers and the surface is circa 44 M2. It extends from the Suburb of Chatby to the Montazah Peninsula, ancient Lesser Taposiris. Since The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists November 1998 the Greek Mission composed of Archaeologist-divers, historians, marine geologists and retorers has carried out seventeen surveys on six different sub-sites. The surveys focused on:

  1. The submerdge ancient Cape The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Lochias, that was part of the Ptolemaic Royal Quarters. Over 400 architectural elements of the Graeco-Roman times have been traced. The finds are varied and include a monolithic tower of a granite pylon which The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists probably marked the location of the Temple of Isis Lochias, a granite architrave of a monumnetal door wich if reconstituted should be 7 meters in hight, a complete base of red granite of over The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists 2 meters high, several inscribed pharaonic blocks and slabs with low relief representations and hierogliphic inscriptions.

  2. There are also remains in the shallows of structures that may be associated to the proto The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists-Christian martyrium of St. Mark.

  3. On a reef, in deeper waters more than 40 stone anchors were found. They date from the mediaeval times. There is also the lead components of The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists a very large Hellenistic or Roman composite anchor.

  4. The remains of a submerdged stone quary coexist with shaft burials were surveyed and drawn before been totally obliterated by the widening of the new Corniche The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists coastal road.

  5. The remains of a large Necropolis and the foundations of some large unidentified structure have also been partialy surveyed in shallow waters.

  6. A large amount of amphorae and The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists sherd testify to the presence of maritime activities and of shipwrecks on the El Hassan Reef at 500 meters distance from the Easter Port entrance.

The proposed paper will attempt to evaluate the importance The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of these finds and their contribution to ancient and mediaeval history and the topography of Alexandria in general and its the eastern suburb in particular.


^ Ramesses II as a deity at The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Abu Simbel


Martina Ullmann


In his influential study “Features of the Deification of Ramesses II” Labib Habachi took the temples of Ramesses II at Abu Simbel as starting point of his considerations.158 This was The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists justified not only by the outstanding preservation of both structures but first of all by the particular importance of this ritual complex for the study of the divine kingship. The paper aims to present an The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists overview of the basic archaeological facts related to this subject as well as a new evaluation of them. The remarks are based on a detailed analysis of the wall decoration and the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists statuary of the temples at Abu Simbel, which goes far beyond the study of Habachi.159 Due to time restrictions the comments will concentrate on the great temple only.

Ramesses II as The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists god is omnipresent in the great temple at Abu Simbel. In the secondary rooms he appears mainly in offering and adoration scenes on the side walls as part of longer The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists sequences of similar cult scenes. But far more significant for the theological concept of the temple is the evidence along the main axis. Here Ramesses II as a deity is shown accompanying the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists processional way from the facade of the temple until the final destination of the ritual at the rear of the sanctuary. The divine forms in which he appears along the east-west axis The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of the temple are much more differentiated in shape and naming as the ones in the side rooms. I.e. in the rooms along the main axis (and in the so-called south The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists chapel) the divine forms of Ramesses II convey a more complex image of the divine king’s character and his function within the scope of the temple’s theology The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists. The placement, the context, the denomination and the iconography of this divine forms of Ramesses II will be shortly presented and analysed in the paper.

The iconography used to convey the divinity of The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists the pharaoh primarily reflects the assimilation of Ramesses II to the sungod from Heliopolis, mainly in the form of Ra-Horakhty. The most important elements thereby are —in this order— sundisc (with uraeus The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists), falcon-head, crescent. The falcon-headed Ramesses II e.g. was preferentially depicted along the main axis, which was part of the initial planning of the temple. It may be assumed therefore that The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists the strong association between the divine self of the king and Ra-Horakhty was from the very beginning a crucial part of the decoration system. The in Abu Simbel newly introduced The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists shape of the royal ritual barque with falcon-heads crowned by sundiscs at the prow and the stern is to be seen at the same background.

The often repeated thesis that the divinity The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of Ramesses II steadily increased during the construction of the temple160 can not be upheld anymore. The placement, the definition (by the different denominations and the iconography) and the context The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of the divine forms of Ramesses II along the main axis show very clearly that the divine self of Ramesses II was from the very beginning an essential part of the theological The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists concept of the great temple at Abu Simbel. The most important forms to express the divinity of Ramesses II are the colossi at the facade, the so-called Osiride pillar statues in the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists 1st hall, the group statue at the rear of the sanctuary and the royal ritual barque. At least the three first mentioned are key elements of the temple which were definitely planned in The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists the beginning. The composition of the elements along the main axis of the temple displays a consistent conception. This can be seen in the linkage of the eight Osiride pillar statues The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists following the principles of diagonal and symmetry as well as in their connection with the colossi at the facade by identical divine forms of the king. It is furthermore supported by the sophisticated The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists reference system within the wall decoration. Not an increase of divinity, thus a change in quality, but first of all a numerical augmentation of the depictions of Ramesses II as a deity The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists during his reign is detectable.


^ New evidence on the length of the reign of Horemheb


Jacobus van Dijk


The Royal Tomb of Horemheb in the Valley of the Kings (KV 57) was officially The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists discovered by Theodore M. Davies and Edward Ayrton in the final days of February 1908. The clearing of the tomb they subsequently undertook was far from thorough, however, and much debris remained inside the monument The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists, particularly in the Well Room (E) and in the undecorated room (Je) beyond the Burial Hall. During three short seasons of work in 2006 and 2007 the Cambridge Expedition to the Valley of The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists the Kings under the direction of finally cleared the tomb completely, with unexpected but very interesting results.In the Well Room a considerable quantity of pottery sherds were discovered which turned out to The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists belong almost without exception to a single type of vessel, the well-known amphora with pointed bottom, round shoulders and two vertically placed handles commonly used for the storage of wine The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists at the end of the Eighteenth Dynasty and the Ramesside period. More than 200 of these sherds proved to be inscribed with hieratic dockets. These consistently mention Year 13 of Horemheb for ordinary The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists wine and Year 14 for good quality wine. The quantity and consistency of these labels would seem to indicate that Horemheb was buried in his Year 14 or at least before the wine harvest of The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists his Year 15 at the very latest. Such a date would agree much better with the unfinished state of the tomb, which has always been difficult to explain if Horemheb, as The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists many Egyptologists still believe, reigned for about 27 or 28 years.


^ The Court of the Ninth Pylon at Karnak during the Ptolemaic, Roman and Byzantine Periods.


Charles van Siclen


Excavations undertaken in conjunction with the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Centre Franco-Egyptien d’Etude des Temples de Karnak over the past thirteen years have greatly increased our knowledge of what had occurred in the area between the Eighth and Ninth Pylons The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of the great Temple of Amun at Karnak. From the time of the area’s final clearance of “surface” debris during the 1930s, this space has been understood as a vast empty courtyard. The The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists recent excavations show a more complex usage of the area extending back to the Middle Kingdom (ca. 2000 BC). When the pharaoh Horemheb built the Ninth Pylon at the end of The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists the Eighteenth Dynasty (ca. 1300 BC), he created a broad and deep court (75 x 80 m) extending northward to the Eighth Pylon, and whatever visible structures that had originally stood south of the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Eighth Pylon up to his reign were removed. For the next millennium, the meager evidence recovered suggests that little of substance occurred within the area of this court. By the end of the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists regency of the satrap Ptolemy, about the time when he was to transform himself into king Ptolemy I (ca. 300 BC), the area of the court of the Ninth Pylon was in considerable disarray: a The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists furnace for smelting bronze has been installed in the southwest quadrant, the surface of the courtyard was cut through with trenches left by stone robbers, and the lower stonework of the walls The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists and that of the axial road had disintegrated and was in need of repair.

Under Ptolemy, the courtyard was renovated: stonework was renewed, holes were filled in, the surface was The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists roughly paved, trees were planted and a major building project was begun. The foundations for this new building were excavated and consecrated, but the project was abandoned and the foundation pit was The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists filled in. The circumstances of this aborted project, however, suggest a possible intended usage. For another six centuries after the Ptolemaic renovation, the court again served merely as a court, but The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists during a period at the end of the reign of Constantine the Great in AD 330, the courtyard took on a different purpose. At this time, in the courtyard to the north, beyond the Eighth Pylon The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists, scaffolding was erected to remove a great granite obelisk (the one now standing in the site of the Hippodrome in Istanbul) and in the courtyard to the south of The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists the Ninth Pylon were built lesser structures which seemingly housed workers. In the southwest quadrant of the court of the Ninth Pylon, a villa was erected, presumably to house the chief engineer who The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists had been charged with the obelisk’s removal. Within the court, in the area north of the villa were a garden with a statue of the emperor and a contemporary tomb The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists.

With the closing of the pagan Temple of Amun in the late 4th century AD, Christian structures were located within the temples of Karnak. A Christian monastery was erected around the Eighth Pylon The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists, using its stone mass as a core, and additional structures were built against the Ninth Pylon. The intervening space between these groups of buildings was filled with an open-air granary which The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists covered the earlier remains. When these monuments were no longer used, the court was finally abandoned to its fate.


^ Demonstration of the Leiden MastaBase cd-rom. A tool for quantitative and qualitative The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists study of  Old Kingdom elite tombs from the Memphite area


René van Walsem


Methodology/Approach: The decorative programmes of Old Kingdom (±2600-2100 BC) elite tombs (restricted to the Memphite area) are extremely complex with The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists many facets and varying aspects on different levels of interpretation. The in-depth study of the various topics entails sets of standard and non-standard quantitative and qualitative questions. As much as possibly unequivocal The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists answers are of the greatest importance to help maximizing the substance and authority of the outcome and interpretation of all kinds of analyses. An objectively quantitative database makes these analyses imitable The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists and controllable for everybody beyond the researcher him/herself and thus helps to better weigh the produced evidence for well-founded research results.

It is no longer good enough for an “authority” to The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists state that a certain topic occurs “frequently” among the elite tomb material – and, thus, was important for “the” ancient Egyptian elite. For instance, as an imaginary case, by giving a list The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of 27 parallels, which may seem impressive to the reader but which, nevertheless, leaves him uninformed on the number of publications consulted by the author as well as of the total population of published tombs The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists.MastaBase, first of all, gives not only the total number of published tombs (337), but also of rooms (581), of walls (2366), of registers (6740) and of texts (11459). Thus, it immediately shows that 27 is not The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists “frequent” at all, nor is its importance impressive for “the” elite. On the other хэнд, MastaBase, may show that 21 occurrences of the topic are found in Giza, 5 in Saqqara and The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists 1 in Meidum, which irrefutably demonstrates that the topic was of great importance for “the” elite of Giza, but not for those of Saqqara and Meidum. However, MastaBase may also prove that at The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Giza 3 occurrences date to the 4th dynasty and the remaining 18 to the 5th, while the 5 at Saqqara all date to the 4th, demonstrating that it was important for “the” elite there in the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists 4th dynasty only. Obviously, abundant subtleties in interpretation emerge immediately and objectively. Other aspects will be demonstrated as well: orientation (is there a “symbolic” meaning, e.g., a West (place of the majority of The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists necropolises) wall means by definition “funerary” connotations?), distribution on walls (high, middle or low position on walls), and historic developments of texts (concise core text expanding/changing over time.

The great The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists variety of data (location, date, name of owner, gender, tomb type, concise description of each sub-theme, orientation, texts, detailed references to published source(s)) and their presentation as tomb plans, multi-coloured The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists walls schemes of main themes and sub-themes (immediately showing their horizontal and vertical distribution over the walls), hieroglyphic texts and its three working modules (Searching, Statistics and Texts), make MastaBase The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists - by a few clicks - a highly time-efficient tool for the research of the fascinating aspects which encompass many sides of the Old Kingdom elite society.


^ Recent discoveries in the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists plain of Dayr al-Barsha – Zone 9B.


Bart Vanthuyne, Veerle Linseele, Stefanie Vereecken


Dayr al-Barsha is located approximately 300 km south of Cairo on the east bank of the Nile. The plain west The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of the escarpment of the Eastern Desert extends north (zone 8) and south (zone 9) of the outflow of the Wadi Nakhla. In zone 9 several branches of the wadi outflow delimit ‘islands’ of higher ground. The southernmost The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of these, zone 9B, is a roughly triangular spur, its base being the slope of the desert cliffs further east. A magnetometric survey was conducted by Tomasz Herbich in 2004, which The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists revealed several anomalies. An archaeological excavation was carried out in 2006 and 2007 to investigate what features were present, to date them and to investigate whether they could be related to data from other zones in The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists the plain. In total 7 burials and one pit containing cattle bones were excavated.

The plundered mud brick-lined shaft tomb 13J46/2 belonged to a Nubian woman and contains evidence of The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists an ancient murder case. This tomb dates to the very end of the Old Kingdom. Within this tomb a secondary burial 13J46/1 (date unknown) of a man was found who suffered extensive perimortem trauma The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists and sheds new light on Egyptian medical practices.East of the burial shaft of the tomb 12J47/1 was located, on the ancient surface level, a roughly мейд offering table. Within the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists shaft and robbed burial chamber of a man were discovered fragments of several ceramic vessels, some of which could be reassembled. The robbed burial chamber of the mud brick-lined shaft The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists tomb 12J46/1 contained the remains of a woman, whose wrapped face must have been accentuated by a clay nose. Traces of wooden models, other items and offerings were uncovered. The burial The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists equipment of both tombs will be compared with that of the Qaw-Badari region. Both tombs date to the early First Intermediate Period.

A circular pit, filled with well preserved cattle bones, was positioned The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists above the burial shaft of tomb 12J47/2. Butchery marks are completely missing and the bones were partly still in anatomical position, indicating that the remains did not represent consumption refuse. Minimally The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists 15 animals were buried and their skeletons all seem to be complete. Besides cattle bones, a few fragments of other animals were found and the pit also contained a few fragmentary human The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists remains. This cattle pit is an extremely interesting find. It is puzzling which kind of (cultural) practices are behind the burial of 15 cattle. Several options will be discussed. Ancient Egyptian longhorn cattle The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists are poorly described osteometrically and osteomorphologically, and the animals from the pit can contribute significantly to closing this gap. In doing so, they may also help to unravel if the ancient Egyptian Longhorns are really The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists the descendants of domesticated African wild cattle, as has been suggested in the literature. The bones will be the subject of further study in the field season 2008. A C The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists14 radiocarbon analysis will be carried out to date these cattle bones. Within the shaft of the plundered tomb 12J47/2, belonging to a woman, evidence of another funerary ritual was preserved. This will be presented. None The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of the ceramics in this shaft have any parallels in the Qaw-Badari region. They appear to have more similarities with finds in Middle Kingdom Beni Hassan.

Under the east The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists mud brick wall of the tomb 12J46/1 a secondary burial 12J46/2 of a man was discovered. Three ceramic vessels from the early New Kingdom were assigned to his burial, which have The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists parallels elsewhere in Dayr al-Barsha and Egypt. In tomb 12J46/3 a decorated Graeco-Roman anthropomorphic coffin of a woman was discovered.Finally zone 9B will be compared with other zones in the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists plain in order to provide an insight into the chronological evolution of the use of the plain as burial ground.


^ Exclusion or importance: Some reflexions on the women absent from the decoration of the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Old Kingdom elite tombs


Vera Vasiljević


The majority of the Old Kingdom elite tombs belongs to men, and they are the focal points of the funerary cult, and accordingly of the tomb The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists decoration. The wish of the ancient Egyptians to unite with their family in the Afterlife, explicitly expressed in several spells of the Coffin texts, can be recognized in the decoration of the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Old Kingdom tombs, in which the tomb owners are often accompanied by their wives, children, and sometimes by other relatives. But in some tombs, especially those from the end of the Fifth Dynasty The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists, wives are not represented, though their existence is indirectly confirmed by the representations of the tomb owners’ children. The reasons for the absence of women probably vary from case to case, and The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists up to now several possibilities were taken in the account, ranging from divorce or death of the woman before the decoration was started, to a kind of taboo which excluded The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists wives of the men who were in service of powerful women. Most of the explanations imply, some even state, that the interests of a (male) tomb owner, quality of his relationship with The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists wife and her subordinate role are the decisive factors for her presence or absence in the tomb decoration. In the opinion of A.M. Roth, the consistent absence of husbands from the tombs The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists owned by women whose married status is confirmed by representations of children, is due to the fact that the husbands were superfluous for the rebirth of women. The absence of The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists one of the spouses was also already considered in terms of status. Still, there are no indications that one single rule or pattern is valid for all the cases.

In order to The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists scrutinize the possible reasons for differences, several examples will be examined of female tomb owners (especially those whose husbands or relatives are known or with some probability identified e.g. Khamerernebty, Nedjetemepet) and The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists some women of similar rank buried in the tombs of their spouses, as well as their respective husbands, inter alia on the basis of the data concerning the titles, the scale of representations The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists and their position in the tomb decoration. The social rank of an individual member of a society is positioned in relation to the rank of other society members, but it The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists is not static: it is constantly redifined or finely tuned according to context and in relation to different persons. The interplay of multiple factors relevant in social life and reflected in the burial has The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists a variety of results; whether a woman is present in the tomb of her husbands as a marginal, equal or prominent person, or is completely absent, may depend on the constituents of both The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists her and his identity, such as descent, gender, inherited or acquired status, and they sometimes result in a married woman being primary or sole beneficiary of the funerary cult in The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists her own chapel or tomb. Besides, the avoidance of “competition” between the relatives could play a role also in the case women: it can be observed in tombs such as Mereruka’s tomb The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists, where Meriteti is consistently labelled as son in tomb sections belonging to his parents, and the record of his high titles is limited to the rooms of his own cult. It is The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists in the interest of a woman to be the фокус of the funerary cult instead of being adjunct to her husband, her needs provided for only through him, and her The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists relative status is the decisive factor in attaining it. The authority based on administrative rank (power over) may be stronger than the status based on influence (power to), but the first one doesn The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists't necessarily prevent or subjugate the display of the second one.


“^ Lost child” of Isis: towards the problem of the “interpretatio Graeca” of the Osirian myth in texts of later antic and The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Christian authors


Olga Alexandrova Vassilieva


The aim of this paper is to demonstrate some specific features of Graeco-roman interpretation of the Osirian myth in the texts of later antic and Christian authors The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists. These sources of the interpretatio Graeca have been little studied in comparison with those of Herodotus, Plutarchus and Diodorus. The subject of a “lost child” studied in this paper has been taken The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists as a typical example of the later antic tradition of interpretatio Graeca. Texts of some authors, containing mentions of Isis and Osiris inform us that Isis set out in search of her The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists lost child. This child is called either Harpokrates (Cassiod.Var.V.17; Hyg.Fab.277), or Osiris (Etym. Magn.s.v. Kovpto"; Min.Fel.Oct.21.1–2; Lact. Div.inst. I.20-21, cf. I.17; Ael. Nat.anim The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists.X.45; Euseb. Praep.ev.III. 51), or he is not given any name (Arnob. Adv. nat. I.36). Most authors tell about losing and finding a child, but only in the Etymologicum Magnum it is said The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists that the lost son of Isis (being Osiris at the same time) was torn to pieces in the city of Coptos (cf. Plut. DIO, 14, 356D-E). As it may The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists be concluded from the sources, the image of the ‘lost child’ is nobody else that Harpokrates, “Horus-the-Child”, which became a kind of a ‘double’ of Osiris in later antic tradition. Such The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists a fusion of two images might have been appeared since the Graeco-roman time, although in the Egyptian tradition the images of Horus and Osiris had a very close connection. One The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of the main factors of this interpretation seems to be a specific position of Isis in this period, who became a universal goddess and a saviour, and the essential role alongside her passed The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists from Osiris to her little son Horus. Also the fusion of two images was influenced by the syncretic tradition of Hellenistic and pre-Hellenistic period, Osiris being equated with Dionysos (and The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Dionysos/Zagreus), and Isis with Demetra.

In the episode of the “lost child” were combined several mythological topoi: the dismemberment of a child Zagreus, the murder (and dismemberment) of Osiris, the wound of a young The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Horus; the search for a lost daughter by Demetra, and the search for a murdered husband by Isis. The motives of searching for a child and his murder/dismemberment The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists are combined only in the text of Etymologicon Magnum, while the other narratives record only the motif of search. This paragraph may have been influenced by Diodorus’ tradition, which also unites both The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists motives (a search and a cruel murder: Diod.I.25.6; I.21.2; IV.6.3-4). In our opinion, the contamination of motives may be issued from the particular features of Zagreus’ myth —a god that was murdered and The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists dismembered, like Osiris, being at the same time a child, like Horus. The motif of search becomes the central one in all the passages, a “meeting point” for Greek and Egyptian The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists different mythological traditions.

The discussed theme has a special significance in the context of the methodology of “interpretatio Graeca”. The appearance of the topic of the “lost child” can be explained both The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists from Greek and Egyptian tradition, but it is not an easy question to decide which one is predominated. The later antic authors, perhaps, were not responsible for the distortions of the authentic The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists tradition, as they followed the information preserved in the previous graeco-roman writings on Egypt. One of the problems of studying the interpretatio Graeca of the Egyptian religion is that noone can be sure The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists whether the graeco-roman authors themselves were acquainted with the Egyptian tradition and were really based on the authentic sources, or they transmitted already interpreted and a second or The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists third-handed information. Some of ‘Egyptian realities’ in the texts of many authors may be only an intellectual construction of modern researchers giving all possible Egyptian parallels to a topic being studied The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists. So one should be methodologically very careful not to ascribe to the ancient authors the information they may not knew at all.


(a) Ancient Egyptian footwear project: preliminary results of Tutankhamun’s footwear


André Jacques Veldmeijer The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists


The study of the footwear of Tutankhamun is part of a multidisciplinary study of footwear from ancient Egypt and Nubia. The ancient Egyptian Footwear Project deals with the footwear The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists from prehistoric to late Christian times. Due to the holistic approach, footwear is studied in all its aspects, from manufacturing technology to socio-economic aspects, and several specialists are involved. The basis of the research The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists is the study of the technological aspects of the archaeological material. Equally important however, but dealt with in a later phase of the Project, will be the iconographic and philological studies The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists. Experimental archaeology will provide additional insight. The Project is closely associated with the Ancient Egyptian Leatherwork Project.

Among the objects from Tutankhamun’s tomb were no less than 93 pieces of footwear. Although The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists the majority is Sewn Sandals, several pieces are extraordinary and thus far, comparable pieces have not been recovered from other contexts. Among these is a pair of shoes, based on the familiar The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists sewn soles with leather uppers and elaborately decorated with beads. Another extraordinary pair of small sandals is entirely мейд of beads.The presentation will shortly discuss the manufacturing technology of the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists footwear, with an emphasis on the Sewn Sandals, which is one of the most abundant Categories of sandals known from ancient Egypt (there are 75 specimen in the AEFP database, excluding Tutankhamun’s). The The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists four Types are presented and their most important differences explained in order to be able to put Tutankhamun’s sandals in perspective. The sandals from Tutankhamun will be compared with the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists footwear from among others Yuya and Tuya.

It is beyond the scope of the presentation to fully discuss topics outside the technological aspects, not in the least because the research is still The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists in progress, but few (preliminary) conclusions can be presented:


(b) The “Rope Cave” at Mersa Gawasis [poster]


André J. Veldmeijer and Chiara Zazzaro


In the mid 1970s, Abdel Moneim Sayed discovered the remains of a Middle Kingdom harbour The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists, known in ancient Egypt as S3ww, in Mersa Gawasis, about 22 km south of modern Safaga at the Red Sea coast. It proved to be an important site, not in the least because The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists texts mention expeditions to Bia-Punt. In 2001, the University of Naples “L’Orientale”, the Italian Institute for Africa and the Orient Rome, in collaboration with the University of Boston, co-directed The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists by Rodolfo Fattovitch and Kathryn Bard, started the systematic investigation of the site in order to understand the organisation of seafaring in Pharaonic Egypt. One of the most spectacular finds is a The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists cave, used to store shipping ropes. The analysis of the study of the cordage is in progress, but we are nevertheless able to present the first results.


(c) The PalArch The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Foundation: four years of electronic publishing in Egyptology [poster]


Board of the PalArch foundation


This year the PalArch Foundation celebrates its 4th year of www.PalArch.nl, which hosts the electronic journal PalArch’s Journal The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of Archaeology of Egypt/Egyptology. The PalArch Foundation offers peer reviewed, electronic publications in pdf format. Studies will be reviewed by at least two members of the international editorial board, consisting of The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists various specialists, or outside the board if necessary. If accepted, it is placed on the website (www.PalArch.nl) and is free to download for everyone (membership is thus not required The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists!). We have a short publication cycle (there are two issues a year; the deadline for each issue is six months prior to its publication). Moreover, no money has to be paid to publish. There The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists are no limits as to size and number of (colour) illustrations and finally, everybody can submit their work. We accept papers on all archaeology and Egyptology related topics and The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists from all era’s of Egypt’s history. Obviously, the manuscripts must be written conform the requirements of the journal as described at the website. From summer 2008 onwards, back issues remain accessible through the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists website.


^ The Old Kingdom Tombs at Dayr Al Barshā: Overview of the Pottery Corpus from Zone 07


Stefanie Vereecken


The archaeological mission of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven working at the site The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of Dayr Al Barshā, Middle Egypt, has excavated a number of Old Kingdom rock-cut tombs during the last few years (H. Willems et al. 2006. ‘Preliminary Report of the 2003 Campaign of the Belgian Mission to The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Deir al-Barsha’, MDAIK 62: 307-340). These tombs are situated on the southern hill of the Wādī Nakhla (zone 07) on the East bank of the Nile and even though they are The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists clearly visible and quite easily accessible, they were never investigated before. The tombs comprise a small rock-chamber, with in the floor one or more square shafts. In some of the chambers, remains of The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists carved out statues can still be seen, protruding from the back of the walls. Even though the tombs have been robbed and reused within time, some remarkable archaeological objects were The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists retrieved, belonging to the original tomb contents. One of the tombs, tomb 15j15A, even contented one of the original burials, complete with skeleton in situ. Funerary offering gifts, like a copper The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists mirror, alabaster jar and pieces of jewellery were found lying next to the body. The majority of the finds of these tombs consisted of pottery fragments and sherds. Since the tombs were flooded several times The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists by the Wadi-floods, most of the sherds had suffered a lot and were sometimes much eroded and fairly poorly preserved. However, carefully studying and puzzling has lead to the reconstruction The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of quite a number of vessels. After close examination, different types of pottery could be distinguished that represent a basic assemblage for the Late Old Kingdom.

Furthermore, pottery fragments dating from the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists reuse of the tombs were discovered. As we could establish in other tombs and zones at the site of Deir al-Barsha, the reuse of tombs was a common practice during the Late The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Second Intermediate Period and early New Kingdom (J.D. Bourriau et al., 2006, ‘The Second Intermediate Period and Early New Kingdom at Deir al-Bersha’, Ägypten und Levante XV: 101-129). During this The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists lecture, an overview will be given of the different types of objects that were found during the excavations of the Old Kingdom tombs (The 2008 campaign of the archaeological mission of the Kathyolieke The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Universitiet Leuven will take place march-april 2008. The research of the Old Kingdom tombs of Zone 07 will continue, so new elements and results will be integrated in this lecture). Special attention will be The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists paid to the pottery, as it is one of the most helpful instruments to obtain the most accurate dating for the Late Old Kingdom Tombs and its reuse . Different pottery The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists types will be discussed, and in addition, we will take a closer look at the fabric and production technique of the different types. As we have two pottery assemblages from two different time periods The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists, this gives us the opportunity to take a quick glance at the evolution of pottery production in Egypt.


^ Literarische Graffiti in Grab N13.1 in Assiut/Mittelägypten -Literary graffiti in The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists the tomb N13.1 at Asyut/Middle Egypt


Ursula Verhoeven


Seit 2003 finden im Rahmen deutsch-ägyptischer Kooperationen jährliche Feldkampagnen sowie langfristig angelegte Forschungen statt, die der Dokumentation und Interpretation der weitestgehend unbearbeiteten Felsnekropole von Assiut dienen (vgl The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists. den Vortrag von Jochem Kahl). Das von der DFG finanzierte Projekt ist an der Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz angesiedelt und arbeitet mit Mahmoud El-Khadragy vom Department of Egyptology der Universit The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologistsät Sohag zusammen. Im Jahre 2005 wurde im oberen Teil des Gebel Asyut el-Gharbi ein Felsgrab entdeckt, das bislang in keiner Dokumentation dieser Nekropole vermerkt war. Der Besitzer ist ein Gaufürst The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists und Priester vom Ende der 1. Zwischenzeit namens Iti-ibi-iqer (ca. 2030 v. Chr.). Dekoration und Architektur sowie der ausgedehnte Vorhof mit zahlreichen, z.T. ungestörten Schachtgräbern wurden in den The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Kampagnen von 2006 und 2007 aufgenommen und analysiert.

Etwa 500 Jahre nach der Anlage des Grabes begann man, auf den hellgrundigen Wänden der inneren Halle Tintengraffiti anzubringen. Unter den heute ca. 140 Text- bzw. Bildeinheiten finden The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists sich Besucherinschriften, historische Vermerke, Opfertexte sowie Tier- und Menschenzeichnungen, die in ähnlicher Weise auch an anderen Orten Ägyptens im Neuen Reich zu finden sind. Als singulärer Befund kommt The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists eine Reihe von berühmten literarischen Texten hinzu, die jeweils vom Anfang an und über meist relativ lange Passagen aufgeschrieben wurden. Es handelt sich dabei um die Lehre Amenemhets I. (2x), die Loyalistische Lehre (2x The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists), die Lehre des (Dua-)Cheti, die Lehre eines Mannes für seinen Sohn, die Prophezeiung des Neferti sowie den Nilhymnus. Alle diese Texte spielten bekanntermaßen im Schulunterricht des Neuen The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Reiches eine wichtige Rolle. Schreibübungen zu einzelnen Redewendungen (z.B. “Anfang der Lehre”) sind ebenfalls an den Wänden zu finden und zeugen eventuell von einem schulischen Kontext.

Nach einem ersten Faksimilieren The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists im Jahre 2006 und einer Kollation und professionellen fotografischen Aufnahme im Jahr 2007 können nun erste Abschriften der lehrhaften Texte präsentiert werden. Paläographische Untersuchungen zeigen ein teilweise sehr fr The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologistsühes Entstehungsdatum, spätestens zu Beginn der 18. Dynastie, wenige Texte entstammen der Ramessidenzeit. Der Textbestand erweitert an manchen Stellen unsere bisherigen Kenntnisse, insbesondere was den Autor der Loyalistischen Lehre betrifft, dessen Name in den The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists bislang bekannten Quellen immer zerstört vorgefunden wurde. Die Anbringungsorte und Kontextualisierungen mit der Originaldekoration, auf die in der Regel Rücksicht genommen wurde, aber auch Bezüge innerhalb der Gruppe The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists der Graffiti, können Anhaltspunkte für die Interpretation dieses Befundes liefern. In den Besuchergraffiti sind einige Schreiber mehrmals namentlich greifbar, die auch für die Abschrift der lehrhaften Texte verantwortlich gemacht The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists werden können.


^ Child burials in the Dakhla oasis


Petra Verlinden


The Dakhla oasis is known among many Egyptologists today as an area of great archaeological potential. This is no great surprise, as the discovery The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of the sites of interest —the Old Kingdom village of Ayn Asil and necropolis of Qila el Dabba— is relatively recent. The interest in this area was roused by the research of Ahmed The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Fakhry from 1947 onwards, when an exceptional event —a sandstorm that lasted for three days— revealed the remains of the Old Kingdom village of Ayn Asil. Fakhry excavated small areas in the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists village, concentrating mostly on the epigraphic evidence. He also did some research in the necropolis, mapping at least five artificial “hills”, which turned out to be Old Kingdom mastaba’s, belonging to governors The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of the oasis in the sixth dynasty. The projects of the institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire and Dakhla Oasis project have since the seventies further contributed to our knowledge The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists about the Old Kingdom “colony” in the oasis.The efforts of the institute have been concentrated on the mastaba’s, continuing where Fakhry had left off. The results of these efforts have The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists been extensively published in the series of monographs ‘Fouilles de l’institut français d’archéologie oriëntale’ (ex. A. Minault-Gout, P. Deleuze, P. Ballet, J. Vercoutter 1992; M. Valloggia, N The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists.H. Henein en J. Vercoutter 1986), and preliminary reports were published at regular intervals in the periodicals ‘Bulletin de l’institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire’ (ex. M. Valloggia 1978; A. Minault-Gout The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists 1980), after a while the reports appeared in the ‘Annales du Service des Antiquités de l’Egypte’ (ex. A. Minault-Gout en M. Wuttmann 1983). In Balat, a small portion of the graves The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists showed an unusual tendency, which was to reopen the graves after some time —no more than a few generations— and to bury another person in the entrance of the tomb. These persons The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists were given their own funerary equipment and thus were granted a private space in the burial grounds.

In a paper which I presented to the university last year to The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists conclude my bachelor studies, I collected the evidence on a portion of these graves, trying to compare these subsidiary burials with the tombs’ main occupants. A first interesting fact, albeit not a very surprising one The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists, was that grown up persons who had been buried in subsidiary graves consisted mostly of women. A second, even more interesting fact, was that a great part (39 %) of these burials consisted of The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists neonates, infants and children. In the last few years, a lot of Egyptologists have written about the role of women and children in Egyptian society. Especially Pinch (1994) and Robins (1993) write The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists about the ritualisation which surrounded childbirth in Ancient Egypt, and conclude that child mortality must have been very high. But, as Robins also remarks, no exact figures of this mortality rate The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists exist.

Not just in Egypt, but in a lot of ancient cultures children are often underrepresented in graveyards (Pearson 1999). However, Egypt has several factors to take into consideration when talking about child The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists representation. Firstly, the science of Egyptology has much evolved in the last few decades, and it was not so long ago that the remains of small children were discarded without even making note of their The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists presence. Secondly, children’s remains (and especially those of neonates) are very small and fragile. When buried in simple, shallow pits, one can easily imagine the destructive influence of The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists factors such as taphonomy, bioturbation and excavation methods. Lastly, it has become clear in recent excavations that small children were often buried in the settlement itself, under house floors or in courts between houses The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists. When one considers additionally the small amount of settlements in comparison to the amount of excavated gravesites, the representative sample seems rather small.

Thus, Balat offers a unique opportunity to The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists look at neonates and infants in the context of a graveyard. This is not so new as one would expect. Meskell (1999) мейд a study on child burials in the eastern necropolis of Deir el The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Medineh, while Patch (1989 unpublished, cited by Robins 1994) calculated the percentage of infant burials in the cemeteries of Gurob, Matmar and Mostagedda. However, these calculations are mostly based on old excavation reports and additionally The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists all date back to the New Kingdom and Third intermediate period (Robins 1994). In Balat, on the other хэнд, we have recently excavated material at our disposal, which dates back to the Old The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Kingdom. In my presentation, I will discuss the anthropological data from Balat, first concentrating on the subsidiary burials, then moving on to the bigger picture of the necropolis. I will speculate on The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists whether the portion of child burials can be seen as a representative sample, or a group which received special treatment. If the former is true, I will try to draw The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists some conclusions about the exact child mortality rate.


References:

L.M. Meskell (1999) Archaeologies of Social Life, Age, Class et cetera in Ancient Egypt, Oxford-Malden.

A. Minault-Gout (1980) ‘Rapport préliminaire sur la premi The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologistsère et seconde campagne de fouilles du mastaba II à Balat (Oasis de Dakhleh)’, ^ BIFAO 80, 271-86.

A. Minault-Gout en M. Wuttmann (1983) ‘Rapport préliminaire sur la quatrième campagne de fouilles The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists du mastaba II à Balat, (oasis de Dakhleh): neuf tombes du secteur nord. Annexe. Observations sur les matériaux des sarcophages’, ASAE 69, 113-9.

A. Minault-Gout, P. Deleuze, P. Ballet, J. Vercoutter (1992) ^ Le mastaba d’Ima The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists- Pépi (mastaba II): fin de l’Ancien empire. Balat II, Fouilles de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire 33, Caïro.

M.P. Pearson (2000) The Archaeology of Death and The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Burial, Texas A and M University Anthropology Series 3, Texas.

G. Pinch (1994) ^ Magic in Ancient Egypt, London.

G. Robins (1994) ‘Woman and children in peril; pregnancy, birth and infant mortality in ancient The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Egypt’, KMT: A Modern Journal of Ancient Egypt 5/4, 24-35.

G. Robins (1994) Women in Acient Egypt, London.

M. Valloggia (1978) ‘Rapport préliminaire sur la première campagne de fouilles à Balat’, ^ BIFAO 78, 65-80.

M. Valloggia, N.H. Henein The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists, J. Vercoutter (1986) Le mastaba de Medou-Nefer. Balat I, Fouilles de l’Institut français d’archéologie orientale du Caire 31, Caïro.


10 Years’ epigraphy in Theban Tomb 65


Krisztián The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Vértes


My participation in the epigraphic documentation of Theban Tomb 65 started in 1998. I was entrusted with the task of copying and interpreting the painted tomb walls. The tomb itself was constructed on the northeastern The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists face of the Sheikh Abd el Qurna hill and was originally intended for the high official Nebamun during the reign of Hatshepsut. The artists decorated the tomb with typical Eighteenth The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Dynasty raised relief scenes of exceptional quality, although the decoration was mostly left unfinished. During the second half of the Twentieth Dynasty, the tomb was selected for reuse by Imiseba, an important The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists member of the Theban clergy, who first restored the damaged parts of the walls then covered the reliefs with a layer of gypsum plaster and redecorated the whole tomb with wall-paintings. In late Antiquity The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists TT 65 was merged into the so called “Monastery of Cyriacus,” which also led to some Coptic activity on the wall surfaces, resulting in incised crosses and graffiti and the defacing The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of most of the painted figures.161 Thus today’s visitor encounters a relatively complicated scenery on the walls, with a multiplicity of layers of different activities.

Similarly, the epigraphic activity in the tomb has The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists been rather complex: it covers more than a hundred years, serving the interest of many scholars and artists beginning with A. Dupuy in 1832 (as an artist of the Hay expedition The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists), and later continuing with Prisse d’Avennes, P. Newberry, H. Winlock and N. de Garis Davies.162 Although the tomb decoration has never been published in its entirety, one could ask what the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists reason was for copying the scenes over and over again. The answer lies in the word “entirety.” The decoration program is not only distinctive in its theme (mostly temple and royal scenes, a The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists divergence from the typical Ramesside private tomb decoration); its uniqueness derives also from the way every single wall was decorated as an independent scene depicting a particular event (mostly Theban festivals The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists). Thus each and every wall (the largest of them being 10x4 meters) must be treated as a separate unit during the documentation process.

My lecture concentrates on the interpretation of the painted decoration, since The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists it is the most intact and complex one of all the visible layers. The main challenge for the epigrapher is to capture the fine details while showing the integrity The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists of the whole, and, at the same time, indicating the impression of the colors. Therefore the method I would like to introduce (the so-called “Imiseba-method”) combines the advantages of the traditional facsimile The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists drawings and the visual effects of color-coding, together with the most recent scanning technology. The result is a highly detailed freehand graphic impression of the entire wall that is The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists treated as a single drawing, which, at the end of the process, needs to be reduced to a manageable size. The ten-year work in TT 65 has definitively pointed out the strengths The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists and weaknesses of the method, which I would also like to discuss in my presentation by using a drawing of an entire wall as my guide.


^ Icon of propaganda and lethal weapon – further remarks The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists on the LB Age sickle sword


Carola Vogel


Among the multitude of weapons in the tomb of Tutankhamun two different shaped sickle swords have been discovered. They do belong to a small group of LB The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists scimitars known from various places in the Ancient Near East, and dispersed over the museums worldwide.For years, Hans Wolfgang Müller had compiled all scimitars that did come to his The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists knowledge with the aim to establish a proper typology – and – if possible – to work out a chronological frame for this weapon. His efforts resulted in a monograph study that in The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists the following did become a standard work: H. W. Müller, Der Waffenfund von Balata-Sichem und Die Sichelschwerter, München 1987. However, more than 20 years after its publication new swords could be traced The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists that demand a re-examination of the whole group. Based on the updated data, the aim of this paper is twicefold: In the beginning, an overview of royal iconography will exemplify the The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists prominent role that the scimitar played in New Kingdom propaganda, above all in the so-called “smiting scenes”. My second approach deals with the use of the sickle sword as standard The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists infantry equipment by discussing its archaeological, epigraphic and iconographic evidence. Furthermore, the practical value of this weapon in close combat will be highlighted to show its increasing significance beginning from the Second Intermediate The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists Period onwards. In the effort to explain this as an example of development as adaequate offensive response to an improvement that had been мейд on the side of the defensive, the body The Apries Palace, Memphis - Tenth International Congress of Egyptologists armour will be discussed against which the scimitar has been implemented. And finally, the suggested replacement of the scimitar by the two-edged sword will be analyzed.
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