Republic of somaliland - 7




FORM I


Topic

Objectives




^ 1.Introduction to Biology






1.1.Definition of Biology

-To define Biology and appreciate the applications of biology in everyday life .




1.2.Characteristic

of living things

To state the main characteristics of living things i.e (move, feed , grow, use their Republic of somaliland - 7 senses and reproduce difference between living and non living things

Project: collect various things , examine them and classify


Observation

1.3. The cell

  • To state that animal and plants are мейд of cells

  • To list the Republic of somaliland - 7 parts of the cell and their functions (not in detail)

  • To state the difference between the animal cell and the plant cell

  • To classify tissues in organisms

  • To explain the link Republic of somaliland - 7 between cells, tissues, organs, organ systems and organisms To use the microscope, know the microscope- parts and their function (include хэнд lens), calculation of magnification.

  • To see Cell structure as seen under light Republic of somaliland - 7 microscope. (differences between plant and animal cells).




Experiments

Classification living things



To show the difference among the living organisms & classify their characteristics

To give a brief history of classification

To explain the process Republic of somaliland - 7 of monoculture

Experiments

1.5 Respiration

To explain that the process of respiration releases energy from food and that this process takes place in cells

To distinguish between the process of aerobic and anaerobic respiration Republic of somaliland - 7


Experimental measuring amount of food

^ 1.6 Movement of substances across the member

Diffusion

Osmosis

To explain the mechanism of which substance accesses the cell membrane

Practical

i) Observe, draw, and state functions of light microscope.ii Republic of somaliland - 7) Prepare and observe temporary slides of plant cells.

iii) Estimate plant cell size

iv)Diffusion demonstration using available substances e.g. KMNO4, coloured plant extract.

v) Osmosis demonstration using leaf Republic of somaliland - 7 petioles, irish potatoes (any other appropriate locally available plant tissues can be used).

vi) Plasmolysis using onion epidermal cells vi) Plasmolysis using onion epidermal cells

Experimental of movement of solutes/water

^ 2.Introduction to Republic of somaliland - 7 Green Plants







2.1.Structure and functions

To differentiate between the main parts of the green plants

To describe the structure and functions of the main parts of a plant (root, stem, leaves)

Discovery

2.2.Transportation

To show that plants Republic of somaliland - 7 take in water and mineral salts through the roots and then is transported

To state that the phloem carries the food

To show that there are green plants which have vascular tissues Republic of somaliland - 7 and those which have not

Demonstrate & activity

2.3 Nutrition in plants Photosynthesis

To show that plants need light, water and carbon dioxide to grow

To test a leaf for starch

Practical activities

2.4. Tropism

To explain that plants Republic of somaliland - 7 respond to external stimuli




2.5.Reproduction in plants

To describe the process of sexual reproduction in plants including pollination and germination




^ 3. The Human Machine







3.1 The skeleton

and Joints

To describe the main parts of Republic of somaliland - 7 the skeleton

To show how the framework of the skeleton supports and protects the body

To describe the main types of joints (ball and socket, hinge, fixed) and their functions

Observation

3.2 Muscles and movement

To explain Republic of somaliland - 7 the meaning of antagonistic pair of muscles

To explain the process in which muscles move bones

Demonstrate

3.3 Food and diet

To identify the main types of food (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins and minerals, water and roughage Republic of somaliland - 7/cellulose) and examples of foods containing each food type

To test foods for the presence of starch, glucose, protein and fat

To explain the importance of food for the human body

To appreciate the advantages Republic of somaliland - 7 of a balanced diet for a healthy body

Practical work

3.4 Digestion and Excretion

To state the main parts of the digestion system

To state the main parts of the excretory system

To describe Republic of somaliland - 7 why food undergoes a process of digestion

To explain how the body eliminates waste products

Observation

3.5 Breathing

To state the main parts of the respiratory system

To describe the process of breathing in and breathing out

To Republic of somaliland - 7 describe how the lungs enable gas exchange to take place

Experiment

3.6 Transport

To state the main parts of the blood (plasma, red cells, white cells and platelets) and the function of each part

To state the Republic of somaliland - 7 main parts of the circulatory system

To describe how blood transports substances throughout the body

Observation

3.7 Reproduction in animals

To describe the reproductive system in males and females

To describe how the female gamete is fertilised Republic of somaliland - 7 by the male gamete

To describe the process of birth




4.Environment

Education







4.1 Different types of environment

To explain the meaning of the terms environment, habitat, population, community, ecosystem

To explain the living and non-living Republic of somaliland - 7 factors that surround living thing and their influence on each other

To discuss the importance of environmental living things

To discuss the impact of environmental pollution

To discuss how to have control of environmental integrity (stop Republic of somaliland - 7 erosion)

To discuss urban environmental health hazards: Garbage, industrial waste, water pollution

Practical (field visits)

4.2. Food chains and webs

To learn about food chains and webs and the energy flow through a Republic of somaliland - 7 food chain

To use the terms consumer, producer, herbivore, carnivore, omnivore

To describe the function of scavengers and decomposers are essential in an ecosystems





4.3. Populations

To show why animals and plants must compete for resources

To describe Republic of somaliland - 7 what animals and plants will compete for in their environment

To describe the environmental pressures which can prevent a growth in population

To explain that there can be a predator-prey Republic of somaliland - 7 relationship between populations

Practical work about counting population

4.4.Humans and their environment

To describe the impact of humans on their environment (population, using pesticides and fertilisers, natural resources, pollution) in your region.




^ 5.Health Education







5.1.Microbes and disease

To identify the Republic of somaliland - 7 different types of microbes that can cause disease (viruses, bacteria, fungi, protozoa)

To describe how disease can be spread and prevented

To learn the symptoms of common diseases (dysentery, diarrhoea, T.B Republic of somaliland - 7., skin disease, malaria, typhoid, influenza, venereal disease, trachoma)

To be aware of the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases, including STD HIV and AIDS

Demonstrate by using chart, diagrams,

5.2. Drugs and health

To Republic of somaliland - 7 describe the affects of smoking on health

To show that drugs (non-medical) can affect a persons health

To be aware of kat chewing effects among the population and its hazards to human being Republic of somaliland - 7

Visits of hospitals & police stations

5.3. Personal health

To learn the importance of a healthy diet, healthy teeth, personal hygiene and exercise in maintaining personal health

To have a personal and community awareness Republic of somaliland - 7 of health issues in Somaliland






FORM II


Topic

Objectives




1. Cells







1.1. Cells and tissues

To describe the structure and function of each part of a plant and animal cell

To prepare, observe and draw plant and animal cells

To describe Republic of somaliland - 7 how the cells of an organism are organised (cell – tissue – organ)

To define and give examples of tissues, organs and systems

To recognise that cells are specialised to have different functions

To give examples Republic of somaliland - 7 of different types of specialised cell

Experiments observations

1.2. Chemicals and living cells

To describe the chemical composition of the cell in terms of water, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, salts and vitamins

To describe Republic of somaliland - 7 how enzymes work and the effects of temperature and pH on an enzyme

To recall what is meant by enzyme specificity

Practical

1.3. Energy from respiration

To explain the process by which energy is derived from respiration

To differentiate Republic of somaliland - 7 between aerobic and anaerobic respiration

Experiment

Diffusion, osmosis and active transport

Phagocyctosis pinocytosis exocytosis

To demonstrate how substances enter and leave cells through the cell membrane by diffusion and osmosis

To explain Republic of somaliland - 7 the processes of diffusion and osmosis (more detailed)

To explain what is meant by active transport

To explain how phagocyctosis pinocytsis and exocytosis take place

Experiment & observation

2. Nutrition







2.1. Photosynthesis and nutrition in plants

To describe the process Republic of somaliland - 7 of photosynthesis and write the equation

To explore that the rate of photosynthesis may be limited by light intensity, carbon dioxide concentration or temperature

To observe and describe experiments to test photosynthesis

To describe how Republic of somaliland - 7 leaves are adapted for photosynthesis

To explain gaseous exchange in plants in terms of respiration and photosynthesis

To appreciate how the products of photosynthesis are utilised by the living plant

To state which Republic of somaliland - 7 minerals are needed for healthy growth and how they can be obtained

Practical work

2.2. Nutrition in animals

To describe what food is used for in animals

To describe the digestion and use of carbohydrates Republic of somaliland - 7 and proteins

To discover the important minerals (iron, calcium, iodine, phosphorus) and vitamins required and their functions

To explain the importance of dietary fibre and water in the diet

To discuss the need for a balanced diet and Republic of somaliland - 7 for special dietary requirements for some groups of people

To describe how food can be preserved and processed

To explain why food additives are added to food and why they can be harmful

Observation Republic of somaliland - 7 & practical work

2.3. Digestion

To describe the structure of the human digestive system

To describe the structure and function of the alimentary canal

To describe the structure and function of teeth

To describe the process Republic of somaliland - 7 of digestion, including the role of enzymes, stomach acid and bile

To explain the process of absorption of digestive materials

To describe the use and storage of digested food

To state the functions of the liver

Practical Republic of somaliland - 7 & observation

^ 3. Sensitivity and Coordination







3.1. Skin and temperature control

To specify the structure and function of the skin

To explain how body temperature is regulated by the skin

Practical work

3.2. The senses

To state the structures which detect stimuli Republic of somaliland - 7 are called sense receptors and where these are found

To describe the sense organs (ear, nose, eye, skin, taste) and their functions

To appreciate the importance of the ear in maintaining balance

Practical



3.3.Coordination

Endocrine Republic of somaliland - 7 system

Nervous System

To determine the structure & function of endocrine glands.

To name the main glands of the endocrine system & the hormones they produce.

To describe the function of some hormones (adrenaline, progesterone, estrogens, testosterone Republic of somaliland - 7, insulin, throxine ADH)

To recall the structure & function of nervous system

To distinguish between the central nervous system & peripheral nervous system

To describe the structure & function of nerve cells

To Republic of somaliland - 7 explain synapsis & how the massage travel through the nerve cells.

To explain what is meant by reflex action & reflex are


Practical

Demonstration about transmission of impulse

Demonstration about knee-jerk

^ 4. Introduction to Republic of somaliland - 7 Inheritance and Genetics







4.1. Variation

To describe the types of variation (continuous and discontinuous), with examples and their causes

Observation

Cell division, DNA & RNA

Inheritance

To describe a chromosome

To explain the behaviour of chromosomes during cell division and gamete Republic of somaliland - 7 formation

To give a definition of ‘gene’ and describe where they are found

To determine the meaning of inheritance

To explain the meaning of alleles, dominant, recessive, phenotype, genotype, heterozygous , homozygous

To Republic of somaliland - 7 explain how parents pass on information to their offspring and the mechanism of inheritance

To describe the structure and functions of DNA & RNA

To describe the process of DNA replications

To recite the triple code

To describe transcription Republic of somaliland - 7 & translation during protein synthesis and that they are controlled by enzymes

Observation experiment

4.3. Mutation

To show that mutation is a source of genetic variation and it has a number of causes




4.4. Evolution

To explain how Republic of somaliland - 7 new species can be formed

To explain what is meant by evolution

To appreciate that fossils are evidence of evolution and that Natural Selection provides a mechanism for evolution

Observation

^ 5. Classification of living things







5.1. Classification

To Republic of somaliland - 7 study the history of classification

To use the nomenclature of organisms

To study the 5 kingdoms (Monera, Protoctista, Fungi, Plants and Animals)

To use keys to identify organisms

Observation

5.2. Animal Kingdom

To identify and describe the main groups Republic of somaliland - 7 of the animal kingdom (annelids, arthropods, molluscs, vertebrates

To describe the characteristics of the structure of vertebrates (fish, amphibia, reptiles, birds, mammals)

Observation

5.3. Plant Kingdom

To identify and describe main groups of the Republic of somaliland - 7 plant kingdom (algae, bryophytes, and vascular plants (ferns, conifers, flowering plants))

Practical

5.4. Micro-organisms

To recite the term micro-organism includes viruses, bacteria, protoctista and some fungi and algae

To describe Republic of somaliland - 7 techniques for culturing micro-organisms

Observation & practical

5.5. Bacteria

To describe the characteristics and structure of bacteria

To specify beneficial and non-beneficial affects of bacteria

Practical

5.6. Viruses

To describe the characteristics and structure of viruses

Observation

5.7. Fungi

To Republic of somaliland - 7 describe the characteristics and structure of fungi

Experiment
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