Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who)



^ Questions from students

From the point of view of the educator, questions from students demonstrate that their interest has been aroused and that they are ready to learn. It fosters communication between the educator and Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) students and makes teaching a more exciting and enjoyable experience. In an ideal situation, it would not be necessary for the educator to question the students because any student who Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) did not understand nor had a query would interrupt the teacher to ask a question. Unfortunately this is an unlikely situation. Ideally the educator should give the students every encouragement to ask questions. Educators Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) must be on their guard against the danger of artfully posed questions which are designed to lead them away from the subject they are teaching, in these circumstances, they should either Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who): ­


Remember that questions can serve a number of important functions:


The essential part of planning a teaching session is to plan the questions to be asked along with planning the content.


^ The Seminar


A seminar may be defined as Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) a discussion group in which each student can actively participate within the allotted time. The seminar is subject-oriented and sometimes requires the presentation of a short paper by one Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) or more of the group at the beginning of the session which then forms the subject of the seminar discussion. The leader leads the group through the discussion and essentially helps to keep the Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) group focused on the topic of discussion. The students are generally the group who asks questions of each other, provides examples when necessary, and controls the discussion topics.


^ Types of seminars

A seminar Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) may be either student-centered or instructor-led.


In the student-centered seminar the educator or leader arranges beforehand for a member or members of the group to prepare a specified Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) topic and make a short presentation that will then allow discussion to follow.


In the instructor-led seminar the instructor introduces the topic or topics and leads the subsequent discussion.


Suggestions Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) for effective groups

According to McKeachie (2002) the following are suggestions to ensure effective groups:

  1. Be sure everyone contributes to discussion and to tasks.

  2. Don’t jump to conclusions too quickly. Be sure that minority Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) ideas are considered.

  3. Don’t assume consensus because no one has opposed an idea or offered an alternative. Check agreement with each group member verbally, not just by a note.

  4. Set Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) goals – immediate, intermediate, and long-term – but don’t be afraid to change them as you progress.

  5. Allocate tasks to be done. Be sure that each person knows what he or she Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) is to do and what the deadline is. Check this before adjourning.

  6. Be sure there is agreement on the time and place of the next meeting and on what you hope to accomplish Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who).

  7. Before ending a meeting, evaluate your group process. What might you try to do differently next time?


Keeping the above points in mind will help students and instructors stay on task, ensure everyone Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) has a voice in the discussion, and allows for some evaluation which is very important in improving the seminar process.


The Leader

A good leader of a seminar is one who can Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) both control the discussion and encourage participation by all members without appearing to take a major part in the discussion. The leader should be:


The leader should not be interested only in his own point of view or profess to know all the answers or expect Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) everyone to agree with his opinions.


Planning and preparing a seminar

Before the start of the seminar the leader should:

  1. Be knowledgeable of the subject matter.

  2. Announce the topic for discussion Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) sufficiently in advance of the time of the seminar to ensure that all its members have sufficient time to acquire the necessary knowledge of the subject.

  3. Decide on the objective/s of Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) the seminar.

  4. Prepare his introduction to the discussion.

  5. List headings to enable him to guide the discussion.

  6. Arrange provision of any necessary equipment, prepare hand-outs, and arrange seating in such a Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) way to allow a productive discussion.


Conducting a seminar

A suggested method of conducting a seminar is as follows: ­

  1. The leader should introduce the topic to be discussed and state the objectives Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) to be achieved; if applicable he should detail the headings under which the topic might conveniently be discussed.

  2. After the introduction the topic can be presented by a group member or members reading a short Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) paper or speaking on the subject for a few minutes followed by the discussion, or, if no paper is to be presented, the leader can start the discussion by Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) posing a question to the group.

  3. The leader should encourage the less forthcoming members of the seminar to contribute their opinions, disagreements, or ideas while at the same time making sure that Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) no one is allowed to monopolize the discussion so that everyone in the group participates in the discussion.

  4. The leader should lead the discussion when necessary to prevent it from bogging down or Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) digressing from the subject, but should do so as unobtrusively as possible. He should also avoid lecturing to members of the group. When necessary, it is important to intervene in the Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) discussion to ask individuals to clarify or summarize what they are trying to express. Finally, summarize the discussion at the end of each stage and at the end of the seminar, giving credit Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) for any specially noteworthy contribution to the discussion


The types of questions which can assist in a productive discussion/seminar:

  1. Leading questions put in such a way as to suggest specific answers Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) will help to carry the discussion forward.

  2. Factual questions designed to elicit facts necessary for the discussion.

  3. Direct questions seeking a contribution from a particular individual.

  4. Overhead questions directed to the whole group Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) to move the discussion along.

  5. Controversial questions designed to produce argument from a sharp division of views.

  6. Provocative questions likely to provoke a strong reaction from most of the seminar participants Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who).

  7. Re-directed questions asked of the leader redirected to another member of the seminar.


Constraints on a Seminar

Constraints which can restrict the value of a seminar are:

  1. Too many or too few members; insufficient Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) members to allow a wide variety of views or too many members to enable all to contribute effectively.

  2. Members of the seminar having insufficient knowledge of the subject under discussion to Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) be able to make worthwhile contributions.

  3. Inability of seminar members to express themselves adequately in speech.

  4. Inability of seminar members to argue and/or discuss a subject rationally.

  5. Inability of a seminar Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) member or members to accept criticism or contradiction of their views without taking offence.

  6. Poor leadership is the biggest constraint of all.



REFERENCES:


Ewan, C.E. (1984). Teaching Skills Development Manual: A Guide Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) for Teachers of


Health Workers. Sydney: University of NSW, School of Medical Education.


McKeachie, W. J. (2002). ^ McKeashie's teaching tips. Boston: Houghton Mifflin


Company.


World Health Organization. (1979). Notes prepared for Workshop for Teachers of Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who)


Health and Medical Record Science. New Delhi.


Unit 3 – Exercise 1


The objectives of this practice lesson are to give participants of this exercise the opportunity to demonstrate the teaching techniques described in this Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) manual.


  1. Participants should be asked to deliver a 20-minute lesson on a topic of their choice to their fellow participants and leader.




  1. The topic, its content and the demonstration of Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) the techniques of teaching are all regarded as important. The length of the lesson, including questioning during and at the end of the lesson, will be strictly limited to 20 minutes.




  1. A classroom should Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) be prepared and equipped with the necessary equipment the participant will require to complete this teaching assignment.




  1. Time should be allocated for the preparation of teaching material for the practice lesson Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who), and tutors should be available to advise as required.




  1. At the end of each practice lesson the strengths and weaknesses of each teaching performance should be discussed by the tutors and the individuals presenting Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) the lesson.


Unit 3 – Exercise 2


A second practice lesson should be prepared and delivered by each participant using feedback from the previous exercise to improve presentation where necessary. This second Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) lesson should be 50 minutes and should resemble as closely as possible a real situation.


^ UNIT 4 – Learning Resources

When we speak of learning resources, we refer to resources as people, facilities or materials that Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) are used to assist in carrying out the teaching plan. This unit will deal with the use of resources such as handouts and Power Point. There will also be discussion of other uses of technology Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) in teaching for face-to-face and distance learning.


OBJECTIVES


At the conclusion of this unit you should be able to:


  1. Assess the available resources and

  2. Choose and prepare the most appropriate Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) to accomplish the learning objectives.


^ CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK FOR SELECTION AND USE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS

Basic premises to be considered in selecting and using instructional materials are:

  1. Learners tend to function like an Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) information processing system during the process of learning.

  2. Learning materials represent various forms of stored information.

  3. A primary function of instruction is to assist learners to access, process, store and retrieve relevant subject matter Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who).

  4. A primary function of an educator is to select and employ the most appropriate information storage/retrieval vehicle (resources) that will expedite a learner's attempts to access, store and retrieve Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) subject matter relevant to their achievement of desired instructional outcomes, which are the course objectives.

  5. Resources are considered as "aids to the learner" and not "teaching aids".

  6. The more control the Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) learner has over the presentation of information the more likely they will be able to access and store, in a retrievable form, desired subject matter.

  7. Instructional equipment and materials should be selected to maximize Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) the learners' control over the presentation of the subject matter stored in the resources used.


Material and technology for instruction should be selected on the basis of its potential for implementing Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) the learner's acquisition and retention of the behaviour called for by a stated objective. It should provide a set of stimuli in such a way that will best produce Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) the responses called for by the stated objective. In other words, instructional material should be selected or designed to give learners the opportunity to identify and practice the stimulus/response relationship(s Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who)) specified by the instructional objectives.


It is important to also consider what technology is available to the instructor, the comfort level one has with the available technology, instructional goals for the stated Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) objectives to be accomplished, and what is the background and preparation of students and their attitudes towards use of technology. According to McKeachie (2002) some questions to ask are:

  1. What do you expect students to Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) learn from the lesson?

  2. What skills and knowledge do you want them to acquire by the end of the lesson?

  3. What teaching strategies (lecture, discussion, group work, and case studies Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who)) will best help students achieve these goals?

  4. Will the students readily accept the technology chosen?


^ HANDOUTS AND PRINTED NOTES

Handouts and printed notes are useful for topics where there are no suitable texts or references available Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) to the students (Ewan, 1984). Handouts are usually printed material handed out during classes and could include:

The most useful types of handouts are ones which provide an outline of the lecture and some stimulus, e Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who).g. questions, to help students organize their note taking and thinking during class.


^ CHALKBOARDS AND WHITEBOARDS

The use of a chalkboard or whiteboard is usually spontaneous and therefore does not require Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) preparation time. This is extremely useful when you wish to emphasize a particular point or list student responses to a question.


POWER POINT

The most common misuse of the Power Point (PPT) is Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) to use it to present too much information in too short a time. This is called "information overload". Therefore, when planning to use PPT it should be used in a way that Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) will enhance teaching.


  1. Suggested planning sequence

  1. Objectives: what do you want students to be able to do after viewing the slides?

    1. Ask yourself the following questions: What is the purpose of each slide? Is it Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) to introduce a topic, consolidate information or review subject matter?

  2. Purpose: Are the slides meant to introduce information, review, practice, prompt, assist with problem solving, provide a basis for discussion or Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) taking notes?

  3. Analyze: Is the material suitable for a PPT presentation?




  1. Points to keep in mind for creating PPT presentations

  1. Use fonts 24 points or larger

  2. Use dark type and light background

  3. Use the slide as a Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) guide rather than reading directly from it

  4. Always face the audience

  5. Distribute or allow students to download a copy of the slides prior to the presentation

  6. Keep the room lights on and avoid showing Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) slides in a dark room for more than 15 minutes at a time

  7. Avoid putting students in a passive mode of receiving information by combining the slide presentation with chalkboard/whiteboard use or any other learning Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) activities

  8. Have a backup plan in case of a power or equipment failure


^ SCRIPTING AND RECORDING AUDIO

Audio is another useful resource used as a teaching aid especially with the increased use Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) of webinars, podcasts, and other forms of media being used in distance education. Points to keep in mind when making an audio recording are:

  1. Voice quality

  1. Use a conversational tone

  2. Vary the tone of voice frequently Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who)

  3. Enunciate clearly

  4. Speak fairly rapidly, but don't appear to be rushing. Pace the dialogue well. The pause can often be an effective way of keeping the interest of the listener

  5. Avoid "uh Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who)'s" and other distracting speech habits

  6. It is sometimes a good idea to use different voices, e.g. for one section use a female voice and for another, a male voice

  7. Use Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) of key words. Emphasizing the right words can effectively communicate the meaning and leads to greater flow and rapidity. Using the wrong emphasis can completely change the meaning.

  1. Content of the recording Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who)

  1. Repetition can be achieved by the student through a replay of the podcast or other media fairly easily. Therefore, repetition by the narrator is unnecessary.

  2. Specially recorded sounds, voices of outstanding Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) people, or short dialogues when used functionally provide variation and add realism to the information.

  3. Don't extend a lesson needlessly

  4. Make sure critical points are clarified. A brief statement often can provide the Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) immediate reinforcement necessary to help the student proceed confidently.



SUMMARY

The best resources are those which you have chosen because they will help students to learn what they must know. Remember Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who), resources must:

A. be appropriate to the level of the students' knowledge and the type of learning

B. present the message clearly and be free from distracting and irrelevant detail

C. encourage student participation in Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) class rather than passive receiving of information

D. be well produced, accurate, readable and/or understandable and educationally sound

E. enable you to use them with confidence to add to the effectiveness Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) of your teaching and to the effectiveness of student learning

F. be accessible to all students in order for it to provide any benefit.

REFERENCES:


Ewan, C.E. (1984). Teaching skills development manual: A guide for Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) teachers of health


workers. Sydney: University of N.S.W., School of Medical Education.


Kemp, J.E. (1980). Planning and producing audiovisual materials (4th Ed). New York:


Harper & Row.


McKeachie, W. J. (2002). McKeachie Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who)'s teaching tips. Boston: Houghton Mifflin

Company.


^ UNIT 5 – EVALUATION OF TEACHING AND ASSESSMENT OF LEARNING

This unit will introduce the various evaluation methods and testing available to ensure students have Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) met the objectives set for them. While there is neither exact method nor preferred method of testing it is important for educators to understand the types of assessments available and determine the best method suited Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) for themselves as well as the class.


OBJECTIVES

At the conclusion of this unit you should be able to:

  1. describe the essential qualities for an effective evaluation of teaching and learning

  2. explain the purposes Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) of examinations and tests

  3. consider the various kinds of tests available to the educator



EVALUATION

Evaluation is the procedure by which the results of a student's encounter with a learning situation Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) are collected and analysed so that the teaching may be improved for the benefit of future and present students.


^ Subjective and Objective Evaluation

a) The subjective evaluation of an activity or object is Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) an evaluation which is reliant upon the personal view, thought or feeling of the evaluator. Because it is subject to the emotional state of the evaluator and not relevant factual evidence, subjective Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) evaluation should never be used as a basis for educational decisions.


b) Objective evaluation is one based upon relevant facts, free from personal feelings or personal opinion. It is this type of Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) evaluation that alone provides rational grounds for action.


Reliability and Validity of Tests


A perfectly reliable test would yield the same results no matter who graded it or Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) if the same student took the same test more than once. No test is likely to be perfect, but objective type tests, which measure clearly defined educational objectives, are far more reliable Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) than tests that are dependent upon the subjective judgment of an examiner or are based on subjectively interpreted fields of enquiry. A test which requires a student to describe how Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) to compute the variance is not a valid test of whether a student could in fact compute it; it is only a valid test of his ability to describe how to do it. The Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) only valid test would be to have the student perform the task.


In short, a valid test is a test which accurately measures the performance precisely described in the educational objective to Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) be achieved by the student as a result of instruction.


^ Criterion-Referenced and Norm-Referenced Tests

A criterion-referenced test determines whether a student has attained each of the educational Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) objectives set for course. A criterion-referenced test measure what a student should know and tells us what they don’t know. A norm-referenced test measures the relative success of students; the Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) results of this test compare student with student. Norm-referenced tests are used to classify students.


^ Student Assessment

Student assessment is the determining of a student's knowledge, skills and attitudes at Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) a particular time so that his change in behaviour over a period of instruction may be measured. This assessment may lead to the diagnostic appraisal of his individual strengths and weaknesses Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) and his individual needs may be discovered. These assessment tests would be criterion-referenced based.


^ Criteria for Effective Teaching

Teaching effectiveness can be evaluated by an observer or by the educator himself but in Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) both cases the evaluation must be objective if it is to be worthwhile. It is particularly important that the educator learn to evaluate his own effectiveness objectively because, for the greater part of Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) his career, he will not have the benefit of independent internal evaluation.


Some questions which the educator should ask himself in order to determine the effectiveness of his teaching are Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who):


a) Was the interest of the class aroused?

b) Was the subject мейд relevant and were the students motivated to learn?

c) Were the objectives of the instruction мейд clear to the students?

d Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who)) Was new work linked with previous or complementary instruction?

e) Were appropriate teaching methods used?

f) Were appropriate audio/visual aids used?

g) Was the material presented in a logical order Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who)?

h) Was the presentation of the lesson developed progressively?

i) Was sufficient time allotted to each section of the lesson?

j) Were the students tested to ensure that the lesson material Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) had been assimilated?

k) Were the students tested to ensure that the lesson material had been understood?

l) Were students asked relevant and appropriate questions and were the class properly sampled?

m) Was Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) student participation properly controlled?

n) Were the students encouraged to learn by the educator's manner?

o) Was the delivery clear and fluent, and was the diction good?

p) Were the Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) students inspired?

q) Did all the students learn what was taught?


Of the above criteria, by far the most important is (q) "Did all the students learn what was taught?"


No matter Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) what the teaching method, the educator should be continuously asking this question and monitoring the effectiveness of teaching by using this criterion. The method of obtaining the answer to the question is by Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) effectively questioning the students to discover whether they are learning. This method of monitoring results is known as feedback; without feedback the effective control of any system, human or mechanical, is impossible Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who). Feedback enables the educator to monitor individual student progress, and so be able to assess the effectiveness of the teaching in meeting the course objectives. It is an essential feature of the systems approach Questions from students - A non-Governmental Organization affiliated with the World Health Organization (who) to teaching and enables the educator to initiate remedial action immediately if it is necessary.

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