PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences


^ PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL


Aurelio Latella1, Gino Paolucci2, Laura Sperni2 and Francesca Vezzà2

1ARPAV (Environmental Protection Agency for the Veneto Region), Osservatorio Regionale Aria, Mestre (Venezia), Italy. 2Università Ca' Foscari di PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences Venezia, Dipartimento di Chimica, Venezia, Italy


This exploratory study is aimed to assess chemical profiles generated by combustion of chemicals stored in Porto Marghera, one of the largest petrochemical site of PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences Italy facing the Venice lagoon, few kilometers from the hystorical center and the urban mainland of the city (Mestre). Th

e simulated fire profiles of the major combustion products resulting from burning of PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences individual and mixtures of genuine chemicals (from storage tank) are included in a database to be consulted as preliminary guideline in case of accidental fire by the emergency personnel on the field PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (fire brigade, civil defence).

Combustion profiles are presented for an industrial subarea where approximately 200.000 tons of the following compounds are stored: acrylonitrile, gasoline and diesel fuel, methanol, toluene, virgin naphta and xylenes. The mixing ratio PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences of these substances in the simulated fires was calculated according to the amounts officially declared to be in stock by the chemical companies. Taylor мейд glassware (1 L volume) allowing proper PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences sampling points and venting) was used as combustion vessel where 5 mL of chemicals were ignited. N2 and O2 were mass flow controlled and supplied to the vessel in a 30:8 v/v ratio PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences. The combustion aerosol was solvent collected (CH2Cl2) with a refrigerated impinger and 1 µl of solution analysed with GC-MS. Injection of the gas phase, directly sampled from the vessel, allowed analysis of PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences the more volatile components. Since in the simulated fire conditions both pyrolysis and combustion reactions occur many products were originated as recombination of molecular fragment of the chemicals under investigation. More than PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences 300 compounds at a relative concentration > 0.1% were screened (aromatics, PAH, amines, phenols, nitriles, etc.) in a volatility range from benzene to PAH species with m/z 302.


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^ SIMULATED FIRE EVENTS OF PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences CHEMICALS FROM PORTO MARGHERA. PART II: µGC AND PAS SEMICONTINUOUS MONITORING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL


Aurelio Latella1, Francesca Vezzà2, Gianluca Stani3, Alessandro Benassi1 and Gino Paolucci2

1ARPAV (Environmental Protection Agency for the Veneto PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences Region), Osservatorio Regionale Aria, Via Lissa 6, 30171 Mestre (Venezia) Italy; 2Università Ca' Foscari di Venezia - Dipartimento di Chimica, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venezia. 3SRA Instruments Italia S.r.l. - Viale Assunta 101, 20063 Cernusco S/N (MI)


As described in PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences Part I, time averaged (e.g. 10 minutes from ignition to extinction of the flame) chemical profiles of the combustion events have been assessed with GC-MS for the less volatile PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences products.

Within the same combustion experiments, the concentration time trend of permanent gases, light hydrocarbons and particle-bound Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (pPAH) were simultaneously recorded with a dual channel microgascromatograph (µGC, MGC200 from PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences Agilent with TCD detectors) and a Photoelectric Aerosol Sensor (PAS, PAS2000 from EcoChem).

Measurements were acquired with a 100s time resolution for the µGC (O2, N2, CO on a Molsieve 5A column and PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences CO2, C2H2, C2H4 on a PoraPLOT U column were quantitatively determined), and 8s for the PAS measuring carbonaceous particles (0.01 – 1.5 µm diameter) covered with ionizable PAH (soot, in the PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences 10 – 10000 ng/m3 concentration range).

Comparative results are presented for the combustion of different mixture of chemicals (acrylonitrile, xylenes, gasoline) and, even regardless of an instrumental calibration, the two analytical techniques revealed to PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences be feasible tools for monitoring the chemical evolution of the combustion events and optimising the experimental set up.


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^ BIOSENSOR AND VOLTAMMETRIC METHODS FOR THE MEASUREMENT OF ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF FOODS AND DRUGS: A PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences CASE STUDY


Luigi Campanella, Tania Gatta, Elisabetta Martini, Mauro Tomassetti

Department of Chemistry, University of Rome "La Sapienza", P.le Aldo Moro 5, 00185 Rome,Italy


Several years ago our group began the research PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences aiming at developing new sensors and/or biosensors for free radical determination a sewage pollution; recently, it led to the implementation of electrochemical or biosensor-based methods for anti-oxidant capacity determination. On the PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences other хэнд, the measurement of the latter and of the free radical concentration in real matrixes are simply the two sides of the same coin.

Our best achievement in this PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences field consists in a superoxide dismutase (SOD) biosensor that we originally used to determine the superoxide radical and subsequently to measure the antioxidant capacity of a large number of real matrixes of interest, as foods PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences and drugs. For instance, several common beverages (wine, tea) were investigated, numerous plant and vegetable matrixes, both fresh and dried, various different kinds of fruit, spices, diet integrators and herbal products PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences, several pharmacologically active principles and some drug specialties.

Research carried out using this biosensor methods was recently combined with the testing of two different voltammetric methods, cyclic voltammetry and pulse voltammetry PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences [5]. In the research carried out so far, these methods seem to produce valid results in some cases and less valid ones in others.

The validity of these voltammetric methods seems in PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences any case less general than the biosensor-based method. The results obtained generally show excellent agreement with those ones obtained using classical spectrophotometric or fluorimetric methods, while the agreement between the data obtained using PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences the two different voltammetric methods is not always completely satisfactory.


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^ CONTINUOUS MONITORING OF GASEOUS ORGANIC TOXIC AIR POLLUTANTS


Miguel A. Barrero, Lourdes Cantòn

Grupo de Ingenierìa Quìmica. Facultad de PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences Quìmica. Universidad del Paìs Vasco. 20018. San Sebastià.


Nowadays, there is increasing concern about atmospheric levels of toxic pollutants, since they have been shown to have a negative impact PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences on public health. Some gaseous pollutants are routinely measured by automatic devices at monitoring stations (e.g. CO, NOx, SO2, O3). However, automatic continuous determination of organic species is usually not implemented due PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences to the complex analysis required, which generally involves a chromatographic step. Nevertheless, this type of equipment can offer very useful information since a large number of compounds can be simultaneously monitored.

Here, we PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences фокус on the characterization of volatile organic compounds in two areas with industrial and urban influence, respectively. For this purpose, a continuous volatile organic compound analyzer installed in a modified PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences van was used. The system comprised a sampling pump, an automatic thermal desorption unit with a cryogenic trap, a gas chromatograph with two capillary columns (PLOT and BP1), and a data acquisition and treatment unit PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences. This system allowed the analysis of NMHC ranging from C2 to C9. All the processes were optimized in order to obtain hourly hydrocarbon concentrations.

More than 60 non-methane hydrocarbons (including the toxic PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences compounds benzene, 1,3-butadiene and styrene) were identified and quantified.

Traffic derived compounds dominated in the urban area, while solvent-use derived chemicals (e.g. toluene, xylenes) were the most abundant PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences in the industrial site. Furthermore, short-duration peaks of certain compounds (i.e. styrene) were detected in the industrial area.

Factor analysis revealed the incidence of three different industrial sources related with different PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences processes and traffic related emissions.


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^ AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER IN AN URBAN-INDUSTRIAL AREA. HEAVY METALS SIZE DISTRIBUTION.


Miguel A. Barrero, Mailen Ruiz, Lourdes Cantòn

Grupo de Ingenierìa Qu PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciencesìmica. Facultad de Quìmica. Universidad del Paìs Vasco. 20018. San Sebastiàn.


Atmospheric suspended particulate matter (SPM) is receiving considerable interest since it can cause adverse health effects. Several studies have shown the PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences relationship between SPM composition and particle size to increased incidence of respiratory diseases.

SPM, size distribution and metal content (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, and Zn) were determined in an urban-industrial atmosphere PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences along a two years period in northern Spain. Air samples were acquired using a standard high volume sampler and a cascade impactor (MCV-ICR), equipped with quartz fiber filters. The sampling PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences periods were 24 h each week and 72 h each month for total suspended particles (TSP) and impactor samples, respectively. Filters were analyzed by acid digestion and atomic absorption spectrometry.

TSP and PM10 levels PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences were 87.8 g/m3 and 69.4 g/m3,respectively, with the PM10 accounting for 79% of the TSP. The PM2.5/PM10 average ratio was 0.60, lower than the value of 0.70 that is typical for urban areas, reflecting PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences a higher incidence of resuspension processes. Iron (3020 ng/m3) and zinc (675 ng/m3) were the major metals determined in the particle samples. These metals, together with lead (167 ng/m PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences3) and manganese (187 ng/m3) were present, in general, at higher levels than those reported for urban areas, which was attributed to the presence of iron smelting activities.

In regards to the trace metal size distribution PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences, coarse particulates were enriched in Fe; Pb and Zn showed a homogeneous distribution; and Cu and Mn accumulated preferentially on the finest particulates.


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^ TRENDS OF MAJOR POLLUTANTS PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences IN AN URBAN ATMOSPHERE FROM THE BASQUE COUNTRY DURING THE LAST DECADE


Miguel A. Barrero, Lourdes Cantòn

Grupo de Ingenierìa Quìmica. Facultad de Quìmica. Universidad del Paìs Vasco. 20018. San Sebastiàn.


Data PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences from monitoring network stations form a useful tool for determining the air quality of urban areas, providing evidence of the evolution of the pollutants over long periods of time. In PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences fact, the levels measured by these stations can show how well applied pollution control strategies work, and also identify the pollutants that should be considered in the future.




^ Figure 1. Annual hourly average concentrations of PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences nitrogen oxides and ozone (1996-2004).


Data from an urban air monitoring station accumulated over the last nine years (carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, ozone, particulate matter and sulphur dioxide) were evaluated in order to PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences elucidate and explain the long term trends. In addition, comparisons were мейд between data collected during the last year from urban and remote sites monitored by the Basque Government atmospheric control PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences network.

Ambient levels of sulphur dioxide and carbon monoxide showed a declining trend due to the transition from wood and fuel oil to natural gas, reduced sulphur content in fuels and improvements PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences in the efficiency of combustion processes.

However, ozone concentrations gradually increased. This is a matter of concern because the number of days of non-attainment has been increasing year by PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences year. Due to this unfavourable trend, special attention has been paid to the behaviour of ozone and nitrogen oxides, which are related by their complex chemistry (Figure 1).


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^ APPLICATION OF ATOMIC PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences FORCE MICROSCOPY (AFM) TECHNIQUES TO AEROSOL STUDY


Massimo Innocenti, Silvano Bellandi, Omar Cerri, Ilaria Fattori, Alessandra Mannini, Federica Marino, Emanuele Salvietti, Roberto Udisti

Dipartimento di Chimica, Università di Firenze, via della Lastruccia 3, 50019 Sesto Fiorentino (FI), Italia


Recent PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences developments in atmospheric studies are concerning the size distributions (as diameter, surface, volume) of the aerosol particle and the chemical composition of size–resolved samples. Aerosol particles size distribution controls the atmospheric PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences residence time and the optical properties of the atmosphere. In addition, the size-distribution controls the chemical-physical pattern of the aerosol particles affecting their transformation processes in the atmosphere, the scavenging efficiency PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences and the environmental bio-availability of airborne chemical compounds including their impact on the human health. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) was for the first time applied to the distribution evaluation of PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences the atmospheric aerosol particles collected on filters. Filter area coverage and particle surface-distribution were directly determined on several 25 x 25 m sections, statistically distributed on the filter surface. Data were digitally recorded ed PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences elaborated. Particle diameter was evaluated by surface measurements considering a simple spherical model. In this way, particle size- and volume-distributions were also reconstructed. The results were used to validate PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences the real size selection of filter collected in different environmental areas ( Antarctic, Mediterranean, Urban) by pre-selected cut-off sampler or multistage impactors


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^ SPATIAL VARIABILITY OF BULK ATMOSPHERIC DEPOSITION AND POLLUTANT SOURCES PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences ASSESSMENT INTO THE LAGOON OF VENICE, ITALY


Paolo Rossinia, Gabriele Matteuccia, Stefano Guerzonib, Massimo Gattolinc, Stefano Raccanellid

aIstituto di Ricerca Gruppo CSA, via Al Torrente 22, 47900 Rimini, Italy. bCNR-Istituto di Scienze PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences Marine, Riva VII Martiri 1364/A, 30122 Venezia, Italy. cProvincia di Venezia, Via della Rinascita 156, 30175 Marghera, Italy. dConsorzio INCA, via della Libertà 5/12, 30175 Marghera, Italy


In order to estimate the spatial variability of atmospheric fall-out of persistent PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences organic and inorganic pollutants into the Lagoon of Venice, atmospheric depositions were collected using bulk samplers. Atmospheric deposition was collected monthly from August 1998 to July 1999 (13 samples), and from April 2002 to December 2004 (77 samples), at PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences three sites located respectively in the cities of Mestre and Venice and inside the industrial area of Porto Marghera. Samples were analysed by ionic chromatography and ICP-MS for major PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences and trace elements and by HRGC/HRMS for persistent organic pollutants. Spatial and temporal variations of atmospheric fall-out were investigated, and source identification was attempted using diagnostic ratios and multivariate statistic analysis. All PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences sites are affected by combustion sources with variable seasonal contribution, and differences in deposition fluxes and pollutant patterns between industrial, urban and lagoonal stations were observed. The station located inside PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences the industrial area always has the highest levels of inorganic and organic pollutants, with a signature mainly affected by local industrial sources and diesel engines emissions. The station located in the city PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences of Mestre appears mainly affected by the high traffic density, with a major contribution of gasoline car emissions. The signature of Venice station is characterized by domestic fires and oil burning PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences, with occasional transport of industrial emissions from distant sources. Given the current level of contamination, a complete analysis of ecological risk necessitates further investigations aimed at evaluating adverse effects.


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^ INNER AND PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences COASTAL ANTARCTIC AEROSOL: A VIEW OF THE COMPOSITION OF BACKGROUND TROPOSPHERIC AEROSOL


Roberto Udisti1, Emiliano Castellano1,2, Ilaria Fattori1, Massimo Innocenti1, Alessandra Mannini1, Emanuele Salvietti1, Mirko Severi1,2

1Dept. of Chemistry, Scientific Pole, University of Florence PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences, via della Lastruccia, 3, 50019 - Sesto F.no (Florence). 2Museo Nazionale dell'Antartide University of Siena, via del Laterino 8, 53100 (Siena).


Exclusively controlled by the cycle of naturally derived aerosol species, the chemical composition and the PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences physical parameters of the Antarctic aerosol can provide basic information on the major natural sources, the prevailing long-range transport pattern and the depositional processes of selected aerosol components.

In PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences order to understand sources and transport processes of natural aerosol components, size-segregated samples were collected in a coastal (Terra Nova Bay) and an inner (Dome C) Antarctic site during the summer field PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences seasons from 2002 to 2005. The first is dominated by primary (sea salt) and secondary (biogenic) marine inputs, whereas plateau areas are mainly affected by long-range transported, secondary (gas-to-particle conversion) particles PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences. Aerosol samples were collected on filters with different porosity in order to roughly classify the aerosol particles in fine and coarse fractions and by 10 um and 2.5 um cut-off inlets low-volume sampler PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences. Highly resolved size-distribution of aerosol particles was obtained by using a cascade eight-stage impactor device both at Dome C and Terra Nova Bay.

Ionic content (anions, cations and some PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences organic acids such as MSA) were determined by Ion Chromatography. Principal Component Analysis was applied to the data set in order to enlighten components grouped by common sources or similar transport pathways. In PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences particular, sodium, chloride and magnesium were used as markers of sea spray contribution while methane sulphonate, non-sea salt sulphate, ammonium and carboxylic acids were related to biogenic emissions.


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^ CHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF SIZE SEGREGATED MEDITERRANEAN AEROSOL (LAMPEDUSA ISLAND AND MEDITERRANEAN BASIN)


Ilaria Fattori1, Silvia Becagli1, Silvano Bellandi1, Carlo Bommarito2, Massimo Innocenti1, Alessandra Mannini1, Damiano Massimiliano Sferlazzo2, Roberto Udisti1

1Dept. of PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences Chemistry, Scientific Pole, University of Florence, via della Lastruccia, 3, 50019 - Sesto F.no (Florence). 2ENEA, Climate laboratory, Palermo.


Atmospheric aerosol plays a key role in processes affecting climate, ecosystems and human health. Marine aerosol PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences constitutes a relevant contribution to aerosol global budget by primary (sea spray) and secondary (biogenic) emissions. In the Mediterranean region, natural marine sources can significantly increase the particulate matter load PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences in coastal areas, adding to the anthropic inputs. Therefore, it is fundamental to evaluate the marine aerosol background levels for a correct interpretation of the dominant sources in coastal Italian sites. In spite of PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences the central role of Mediterranean basin in atmospheric composition over Southern Europe, surprisingly few data on marine background aerosol from remote sites are available so far. In order to contribute to fill PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences this knowledge gap, aerosol samples were collected in a remote site in the Sicily Canal (Lampedusa Island) and along cruises from North Tyrrhenian Sea to Sardinia Sea samplings were carried out with PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences open-face filter sandwich apparatus, able to roughly separate a fine and a coarse fraction and by a pre-selected cut-off sampler (10, 2.5 and 1.0 um). Sea spray and biogenic emissions PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences represent the main contribution to primary and secondary aerosol fractions, respectively. Biogenic compounds show a sharp seasonal pattern and are mostly distributed in the finest fractions. Contribution of mineral particles (mainly from PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences Saharan dust depositions), play a relevant role both directly, by affecting solar light scattering and indirectly, by a fertilization effect (iron deposition) on superficial sea water. The increased biological activity controls the climate influencing albedo PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences and hydrological cycle via Cloud Condensation Nuclei production.


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^ SYNTHESIS AND MUTAGENICITY OF POLYCYCLIC QUINONES


Assunta Marrocchi, Lucio Minuti, Aldo Taticchi

Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Perugia, via Elce di Sotto PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences 8, 06123 Perugia, Italy


In the course of a research project on the mutagenicity of Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds we have studied the mutagenicity of several benzo-annulated cyclopenta[a]- and cyclopenta[c PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences]phenanthrenes with the aim of giving a contribution to a better understanding of the structure-mutagenicity relationship in the class of cyclopentaphenanthrenes1. In continuation of this project we have undertaken a study on the effects PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences of benzoannulation of 1,4-anthraquinone and 9,10-anthraquinone on their mutagenic properties. This communication reports the preliminary results.


References

[1] Interalia: (a) Taticchi A., Minuti L., Marrocchi A., Lanari D. Recent Res. Devel PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences. Org. Chem., ^ 2002, 6, 483-498 (b) Marrocchi A., Minuti L., Morozzi G., Taticchi A. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2001, 9, 1509-1515 (c) Minuti L., Taticchi A., Marrocchi A., Morozzi G., Pampanella L., Gacs-Baitz E. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds 1999, 13, 9-24


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Emission of PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences volatile organic compounds and dispersion of odours from a waste collection centre in Florence, Italy


^ Tania Martellini°, Alessandra Cincinelli°, Carlo Begliomini*, Idilio Pisani* and Luciano Lepri°

°Department of Chemistry, University PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences of Florence, Via della Lastruccia, 3 - 50019 Sesto Fiorentino, Firenze (Italy). *S.A.F.I. (Servizi Ambientali Area Fiorentina) S.p.A., Via Lungo l'Ema, 11 Bagno a Ripoli, Firenze (Italy)


Municipal solid waste collection PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences sites represent a potential source of VOCs which may be associated with release through direct emission or evaporation of residues in materials which have been disposed and/or with aerobic and PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences anaerobic biological processes of solid waste. Most of these VOCs are odorants and responsible of offensive odours that can create annoyance and impact in the surrounding community. The objective of this study were to identify PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences and quantify VOCs emitted from a solid waste collection centre, located in San Casciano, Florence (Italy) and to evaluate the intensity and extent of odours attributable to emissions from this site. The PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences present Italian legislation doesn’t foresee limits to odour emissions, however the limit of Lombardia Region (200 UO/mc) seems to be widely adopted. The innovative aspect of this study PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences was to perform olfactometric simultaneously to analytical analysis. Air samples were collected at the potential odour sources of the waste collection centre, storage area and stack, and at six different sites located at various PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences distances from the plant (sensitive areas). The principal VOCs identified were alkanes, aromatic compounds (e.g. toluene and xylenes), terpenes (e.g. pinene and limonene) and oxygenated (e.g. alcohols, ketons). Pinene and PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences limonene, both particularly odorous but not toxic, were individuated as specific markers of the malodour sources. High concentrations of these organic compounds were found in the inner sites because their presence PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences is a result of microbial processes or of deodorants used to reduce malodorous. Concentrations at traces levels in the surrounding area has demonstrated the plant influence to the air quality. On the contrary PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences olfactometric data were useful to evaluate the extent of odours at stationary source points but not at outside sites because values were similar to air background levels (50-60U.O/mc PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences).

The “Valley” dispersion model was used to evaluate the extent of odours on surrounding communities.

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^ INCENERATION OF WASTE AND EC ASMOSPHERIC LEGISLATION


Giuseppe Garzia

University of Bologna (branch of Ravenna)


Undoubtedly the law about PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences inceneration of waste is one of the most interesting and current in EC environmental atmospheric legislation. Indeed, there are many important recent directives such as 2000/76/EC of 4 december 2000 (on inceneration of PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences waste), which is specific on that topic; 96/61/EC of 24 september 1996 (concerning integrated pollution, prevention and control) and 2003/87/EC of 13 october 2003 (establishing a scheme for greenhouse gas emission allowance tradind within the Community) that PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences are about general industral plans. Although all these directives are about different topics, they are based on all the fondamental principles of the Treaty, in particular the precaution and the prevention PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences ones (art. 174 Tr.). The EC member States should adopt specific laws to in order to obtain a correct implementation of these directives.


AE-P-25

DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences ION TRAP TANDEM MS METHOD FOR THE DETERMINATION OF CARBOFURAN, CARBARYL AND THEIR METABOLITES IN APPLICATORS' URINE SAMPLES


^ Syrago Styliani E. Petropoulou1,2, Evagelos Gikas1, Anthony Tsarbopoulos1,3 and Panayotis A. Siskos2.

1Bioanalytical Laboratory PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences, GAIA Research Center, The Goulandris Natural History Museum, 100 Othonos, 145 64 Kifissia, Greece. 2Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Panepistimioupoli, 15771 Zographos, Athens, Greece. 3Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Department PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences of Pharmacy, University of Patras, 265 04 Rio, Greece


N-methylcarbamates are one of the major categories of pesticides in the agriculture of crops, rice and potatoes agriculture. Their way of action is anticholinesterasic like PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences organophosphates, but they differ in their affinity of inhibition. [1]

Carbofuran and carbaryl are metabolising in the liver forming conjugates of glutathione and esters of sulphate and glucuronidase. More than 80% of an oral intake PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences of carbofuran is excreted via urine in its major metabolites forms: carbofuran–3– keto, 3– hydroxycarbofuran, 7–phenol, 3–ketocarbofuran phenol and 3–ketocarbofuran. Carbaryl is also excreted via urine in the form of 1 – napthol, conjugated as glucuronides PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences or sulphate ester [2].

In this work we are presenting the development and validation of a selective GC – IT MS. In this method the sample preparation procedure was carefully designed according to PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences biological monitoring. Mild conditions were used for samples preparation based on enzymatic hydrolysis and solid phase extraction technique using OASIS HLB cartridges. Linear calibration equations were preformed in 6 concentrations for each compound PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences 1, 2, 5, 10, 100 and 200 ng mL-1, in fortified urine samples and were obtained using internal standard. LODs for all compounds were lower than 0.50 ng mL-1. Precision (%RSD) for all compounds at the concentrations of PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences 1, 10 and 100 ng mL-1 (n = 5) in fortified urine samples ranged from 0.7% to 18%. Accuracy (%Er) was calculated at two concentrations 8 and 80 ng mL-1 (n = 3) and ranged from 1,1% to 10.2%. Relative recoveries at concentrations of 1, 10 and 100 ng PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences mL-1, ranged from 71% to 115%, (n = 3). The method was successfully applied to male applicators’ urine samples, at control samples of the same areas and to samples voluntarily supplied by people of Athens’ municipality PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences [3].


References

1. Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, 2nd Edition, Vol. 2, Agents, Academic Press, Ch. 52.

2. Maurer H.H., J.of Chrom.B., 713, 1998, 3.

3. Thompson M., Ellison S. L. R., Wood R., Pure and Applied Chem. 74 (2002), 835.


AE PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences-P-26

^ INITIATIVES AND ACTIONS OF CHEMICAL FACULTY

AT GDANSK UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY (GUT) FOR EDUCATION IN SD


Waldemar Wardencki*, Jacek Namieśnik*, Elżbieta Gończ*, **

*Chemical Faculty at Gdańsk University of Technology (GUT), Centre of PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences Excellence of Environmental **Analysis and Monitoring (CEEAM); 11/12 G. Narutowicza Street, 80-952 Gdańsk, Poland


Education for sustainable education is an emerging and dynamic concept that encompasses new vision of education seeking to PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences empower people of all ages to take responsibility for creating future

This education should be aimed at promoting through the improved knowledge and skills the preservation, conservation and utilization of the natural environment in a PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences sustainable manner for the present and future generations.

Universities may and should play a crucial role in this education The GUT, just as other institutions of higher education – by PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences means of the offered programmes and specializations which meet the challenges of the future – should provide the knowledge and understanding, the necessary skills and respect for values that will enable the students full and PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences responsible participation as active and well informed citizens in the development processes held in the ecologically sustainable society. Learning how to employ better and more environmentally friendly technologies, increase environmental effectiveness PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences of production processes, , avoid environmental disasters and risks, be prepared for changes, include social aspects more consequently and finally make wise decisions should be part of the education process.

The paper PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences presents the efforts мейд during the last decades by the Chemical Faculty of Gdansk University of Technology to reorientate its education programs more towards sustainability. It was implemented by the following initiatives and actions PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences:

All these efforts мейд at Chemical Faculty for ESD seem to raise PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences students awareness and motivation to deepen the knowledge and skills necessary for effective SD.

The Chemical Faculty has an ambition and strategy to get more involved in the organized cooperation of the European PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences universities for sustainability. We are convinced that more could be done by integration of ideas, exchange of experiences and good practices as well as new education projects implemented together. We feel that PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences more could be done in the management processes of the higher education institutions, so that they could become working examples for sustainable management. We feel that involvement of universities into the RSD PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences processes should become more intense in order to implement successfully the goals of the Lisbon and Gothenburg Strategies.


AE-P-27

^ STUDY ON URINARY TOXIC METALS IN A STEEL PRODUCTION WORKERS


Ching-Jyi PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences Horng*1, Ping-Hua Horng1, 2, Wei-Tsong Horng1, and Jin-Lian Tsai*2

1Faculty of Medicinal and Applied Chemistry, College of Life Science; 2Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy;


Some of the most PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences pernicious dangers of pollution arise from the presence of traces of toxic elements in the environment. In this work, we report on the determination o f cadmium, lead, nickel and selenium in the urine PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences of steel production and steel quality control (QC) workers, in comparison to healthy control subjects is described. Digestion of urine by a common microwave system is performed, and graphite furnace atomic PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences absorption is quantification. Quality control for these procedures was established with the concurrent analysis of Standard Trace Metals 7879 Level II and NIST SRM 2670 (Toxic Elements in Freeze Dried Urine).

The results indicated that PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences the urinary levels of these elements in steel production (Cd: 9.56 ±4.38 µg/L, Pb: 53.6±19.3 µg/L, Ni: 34.9±15.8µg/L, Se: 68.3±26.7µg/L) and quality control workers (Cd: 7.93± 2.29 µg/L, Pb: 47.8±8.3 µg/L PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences, Ni: 29.3 ±13.7 µg/L, Se: 53.5±24.8 µg/L) are significantly higher than in the controls(Cd: 3.43 ±2.06 µg/L, Pb: 32.9 ±14.2 µg/L, Ni: 4.42 ±2.23 µg/L, Se: 32.9±13.2 µg/L). Further, selenium may have a positive PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences antagonistic effect towards the action of carcinogens or teratogens.The possible connection of these elements with the etiology of disease is discussed and the need for improvement of environmental conditions in the PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences workplace through better ventilation and industrial hygiene practices is suggested.


AE-P-28

^ MEASUREMENT OF THE CONCENTRATION OF RADON GAS IN THE TOIRANO CAVE (LIGURIA)


Diego Bruzzone1, Massimo Bussallino2, Gianrico Castello3, Stefano Maggiolo2, Danierla PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences Rossi3.

1Laboratorio Chimico della Camera di Commercio di Savona. 2Agenzia Regionale per l'Ambiente Liguria - Dipartimento di Genova. 3Università di Genova - Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale


The radioactive gas Radon PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences, intermediate term of the decay chains of Uranium and Thorium, is the main contamination source of the underground places and may be a risk for high concentration and long exposure time.

European and Italian law PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (D. Lgs. 241/2000) requires Radon concentration to be monitored and, if the “action level” of 500 Bq/m3 is reached, proper actions must be мейд in order to decrease the dose commitment PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences.

When natural caves or artificial cavities with archaeological and paleontological interest are considered, the exposition of the visitors is small, due to the short residence time, but accompanying people remaining underground for PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences long time may be subject to appreciable dose.

The high humidity in natural caves may impair the use of some measuring devices. Therefore, different detection methods were compared (ZnS scintillation counters, E-Perm PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences electretes, cellulose nitrate trace dosimeters) to select the best procedure for long-term investigation. The LR-115 (Kodak) trace dosimeters were insensitive to humidity and permit a great number of places in the PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences cave to be monitored at the same time.

Measurements have been carried out in the speleological and archaeological site of the Toirano’s cave (Savona, Liguria, Italy) and fourteen points were monitored for PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences two years. Radon concentration strongly depends on the site and changes during the year, due to the difference between internal and external temperature. No risk exists for visitors, but the PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences average yearly concentration requires a complete monitoring of the exposition of the personnel and its classification according to the radiation protection law.


AE-P-29

^ DIRECT DERETMINATION OG MERCURY IN ICE SAMPLES BY PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences MEANS OF THE SECTOR FIELD INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY(ICP-HFMS).Y


Claudio Bettinelli

C.M.B. Sistemi integrati per i laboratori, la qualità, l'ambiente, Via G. Landi 77, Piacenza


The Hg, metal of declare PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences toxicity, endures long range transport and deposition processes such as to be find in remote zone of the globe. The interest in remote zone hg determining is in the PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences possibility of: study the transport mechanism, create a historical map of the pollutant, value the natural background level and where possible define the anthropogenic contribute. In the following work have been carried PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences out surveyings on segment of ice coming from Monte Bianco (locality Col Du Dome), sampled with ultra clean procedures, necessaries for the Hg determination at the ppt level. To reach such concentration PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences had been developed a method for the direct determination of Hg based on the sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-HFMS). For the instrumental calibration (thermo finnigan mat element2) have been used PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences Hg standard solutions with ultra low concentration (from 1,5 to 20 pg/g), allowing us to reach detection limit of 0,18 pg/g. The RSD (Relative Standard Deviation) has supplied sufficiently good results (< of 9.3%) emphasizing PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences that the low values of the third reply are the consequence of a loss of sensibility. The precision estimated for high concentration of Hg turn out equal to 0,9-1 % while at the level of PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences 2-4 ppt the relative standard deviation grow until to 21%-26%. The ultra clean procedure, applied since the sapling, allowed us to declare null the blank contribution and to define good fitting the method PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences for the direct Hg determination by ICP-HFMS. With the following work had been possible to create an historical map of the Hg from 1820 to 1991. The increasing concentrations level found is imputable to PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences the anthropogenic contribute, however the maximum value revealed have been associated to natural emissions. In particular, between the main sources of the natural emissions there are the volcanic eruptions PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences that, seen the high number of active volcanos in Italy, have played a key role in the Hg concentrations in the snow of the Monte Bianco.


AE-P-30

^ POPULATION EXPOSURE TO VOLATILE ORGANIC PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences COMPOUNDS (VOC) AND NO2 IN VALENCIA (SPAIN)


M.T.Bomboì*,R. Fernàndez Patier*, A. Aguirre*, A. Dìaz*, J. Alonso*, A. Pérez*, A. Espulgues**, M. Andreu** and F. Balleter PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences**

* Area de Contaminaciòn Atmosférica. Instituto de Salud Carlos III.28220-Majadahonda (Spain)

** Unidad de Epidemiologìa y Estadìstica. Escuela Valenciana de Salud. 46017- Valencia (Spain)


According to the Environment and Health PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences Action Plan which was launched by the European Commission in 2004 and the declaration of the Fourth Ministerial Conference on Environmental and Health, which been held on June 2004 in Budapest a network for PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences childhood and environment (INMA) was developed since 2003 in Spain to know the environmental effects to the children health.

The aim of this work was assessing outdoor, indoor and personal exposure to air pollutants (VOC PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences’s and NO2) in the Valencia area, in three sampling campaigns of two and seven days distributed over 2004.

Measurements were performed by using a radial diffusive sampler in ninety representative sites in the PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences studied area. For the personal exposure measurements, twenty volunteers were selected and the samplers were exposed for two days outside and inside their houses, so as one of them was carried by PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences each volunteer. The analysis of the diffusive samplers were мейд by thermal desorption and gas chromatography with FID for VOC’s and spectrophotometry of UV-Vis for NO2.

Ambient mean concentration levels PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences varies from 1,32 ug/m3 to 4,52 ug/m3 for the benzene, 7,24 ug/m3 to 26,37 ug/m3 for the toluene, 1,54 ug/m3 to 6,89 ug/m3 for the ethylbenzene, 4,05 ug/m3 to 37,1 ug PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences/m3 for the m+p xylenes, 1,11 ug/m3 to 4,31 ug/m3 for o-xylene and 23 ug/m3 to 46,87 ug/m3 for the NO2. Pollution levels vary in function of climate, traffic density, gasoline PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences composition and characteristics of the city.

Indoor/outdoor ratios are higher than 1 for all compounds, reaching until the value of 2 or 3 sometimes and the indoor/personal ratios are lower than 1. These ratios give PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences an idea of the indoor air pollution and the exposure of the people living in these houses. This concern is important to consider the exposure assessment so as recommend PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences to change or improve living habits, outdoor pollution, traffic, etc.


AE-P-31

^ WORKERS EXPOSURED XYLENE IN CLINICAL PATHOLOGY LABORATORY


Hei-Hwa Lee1 Yueh-Lun Shih2 Jin-Lian Tsai3

1Department of Laboratory, Kaohsiung Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences, Kaohsiung Medical University

2Department of Nursing, Kaohsiung Chung-Ho Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University

3Graduate Institute of Occupational Safety and Health, College of Health Science, Kaohsiung Medical University


Xylene is an aromatic hydrocarbon. People PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences who breathe the high level of xylene may feel dizzy and confused, as well as, have a change in their sense of balance. It is ordinarily used as a solvent in the PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences department of pathology; therefore, workers in the department of pathology are at high risk to be affected. This study researched the number of occupations exposing in xylene in the PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences department of pathology and explored factors of concentration changes. The subjects included two regional hospitals and four medical centers in Taiwan. The analytic method referred to EPA NIEA715.11B. Samples were analyzed PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences by varian 3800 GC-MS. The result indicated that the maximum of exposure in xylene occurred in the process of the exchange xylene for any instruments. During this time, workers supported the maximum xylene PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences exposure. Moreover, there were approximately 7% ethylbenzene in xylene. It also evaporated in the air. The hazard indices of xylene and ethylbenzene were in an acceptable range (HI<1). In the clinical pathology department, xylene concentration PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences on holiday is higher than workdays and in the exchange solvent is higher than non-exchange. The diffusion of xylene is affected by space. There are several factors that lead people PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences to expose in xylene: the working condition, workload, the ventilation system and work attitude. Generally speaking, the main factors are the ventilation system and the work attitude


AE-P-32

^ MONITORING OF PARTICULATE MATTER PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences ON THE LAKE OF COMO (ITALY)


L. Rampazzi, D. Cavallo, A. Pozzi, F. Premoli, B. Rizzo

Dipartimento di Scienze Chimiche e Ambientali, Università degli Studi dell'Insubria, Via Valleggio 11, 22100 Como, Italy.


In the last few PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences years the attention has been focused on pollution and on its effects on human health in an attempt to understand the relation between the increase in respiratory illness among the world population PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences and the increase in atmospheric pollution. Particulate matter (PM) coming from highly polluted areas, i.e. big cities, highly industrialised areas, highly trafficated roads etc., has been studied and particular attention PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences has been posed on PM 2.5. This fraction of the total PM is particularly dangerous to human health due to its content in heavy metals and potentially carcinogenus substances. The risk PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences related to emissions in the so-called 1st World is nowadays global as winds and advection phenomena bring around pollutants.

The aim of this work is to study the atmospheric pollution in Gravedona PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (CO), a small city on the lake of Como; the reason why Gravedona has been chosen among other cities is because this system presents low direct particulate production and traffic input but it PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences is characterized by PM transport along north-south and south-north directions due local winds and regional meteorological conditions. Samples have been collected daily with an impactor and teflon filters have PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences been used in order to have a good gravimetric analysis and a useful support for chemical analysis.

Ion Chromatography (IC) has been used to characterize the soluble fraction content and to estimate ionic PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences concentration.


AE-P-33

Development of a prototype to obtain reference materials for Pb, As, Cd and Ni contained in PM10 atmospheric particles


Fernàndez Patier Rosalia1, Aguirre Martìnez Jesùs2, Garcìa PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences Dos Santos Saul1, Santamaria Balleteros Julia1, Saori Polo Julio2, Paris Fernàndez Rogelio2

1Instituto de Salud Carlos III. 2J. Aguirre S.L.


The objective of the project is to obtain PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences actual reference materials of Pb, As, Cd and Ni contained in PM10 atmospheric particles collected on quartz fiber filters, according to EN 12341:1998, with the intention of fulfill the requirements of Directives 1999/30/CE and 2004/107/CE PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences.

The project has been divided into three phases:

The first phase has consisted of the development of a prototype with 10 PM10 inlets that allows PM10 synchronized samplings, according to the reference PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences method EN 12341:1998. The development of the prototype has required the design, construction, operation verifications, modifications and final tests with the corresponding flow rate calibrations for each inlet.

The second phase PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences has included 4 field campaigns, according to EN 12341:1998 (accreditation of our laboratory according to EN ISO/CEI 17025) мейд in summer (from 05.07.2004 to 29.07.2004) and winter (from 15.10.2004 to 12.11.2004), in an urban station (Madrid) and an PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences industrial station (Alcora in Castellón). Determinations of particulate matter have been мейд according to EN 12341:1998 (accreditation of our laboratory according to EN ISO/CEI 17025) and determinations of metals in filters according to prEN 14902 (in PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences whose accomplishment to Instituto de Salud Carlos III has participated).

The third phase has consisted of the statistical analysis of the data and the establishment and validation of the methodology. Reference materials PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences representative of urban and industrial zones have been obtained with higher concentrations in the industrial zone, except for Ni, which values are similar in winter. Significant correlations to 99,9 % have been found PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences between PM10 and Pb, Cd, As and Ni, in all the campaigns, except in summer in Castellón.

The repetibility uncertainty is 5,45 % (Pb), 32,50 % (Cd), 7,29 % (As) and 36,98 % (Ni), improving slightly with the application of PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences test of anomalous (Box plot). Afterwards, we are going to propose an intercomparison exercise with 10 laboratories and to assess the minimum number of filters that would be necessary to determine so that PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences the uncertainty in the rest of the filters was the possible minimum, according to the criteria of quality of the data established in the Directives.


AE-P-34

^ CHEMICAL FRACTIONATION PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences OF METALS IN AIRBORNE PARTICULATE MATTER: FIRST RESULTS RELATED TO PM2.5 AND PM10 SAMPLES


Silvia Canepari, Enrico Cardarelli, Silvano Ghighi, Maria Luisa Astolfi, Maria Letizia Marzo

Department of Chemistry - University of Rome "La Sapienza PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences" P.le Aldo Moro, 5. 00185 Rome- Italy


Chemical characterization of fine airborne particulate matter (PM) has a key role on understanding adverse effects of PM on human health, ecosystems and materials. Trace metals are frequently used PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences for source apportionment studies, for their peculiar relative abundance in particulates from different emission sources. Also, availability, bio-geochemical distribution and toxicity of an element are dictated by its particular species. This PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences work regards the application to a PM2.5 and PM10 monitoring campaign of an elemental chemical fractionation procedure. Total content of 17 elements is divided by a sequential extraction into a leachable (pH PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences4.5 buffered aqueous solution) and a residual fractions. The analytical results are discussed on the basis of PM size distribution, sampling site typology and prevalent expected natural or anthropic sources. A general PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences increase of solubility has been noted for those metals and in those conditions which are characteristic of a relevant anthropogenic contribution, so that fine particles show higher solubility percentages than coarse ones PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences and urban samples than regional background ones. In agreement with the different chemical species distribution in the matrix, a substantially different distribution between the leachable and residual fraction is obtained when marine PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences aerosols or saharian dusts events occur.


AE-P-35

^ TROPOSPHERIC PAH OZONIZATION. A THEORETICAL MECHANISTIC STUDY.


Anna Giordana, Giovanni Serra, Andrea Maranzana, Glauco Tonachini

Universita' di Torino (Italy) Dipartimento di Chimica Generale ed Inorganica A.


We PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences investigate the mechanism of tropospheric PAH ozonization by quantum-mechanical methods. The study compares the situation of a PAH containing only 6-rings with that of a PAH containing also one or PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences two 5-rings. The main differences between, for instance, corannulene (A) and coronene (B) are the following. All intermediates and products are more stable in the A case. (1) Concerted attack: the primary ozonide PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (PO) forms much more easily in the A case (∆E‡=7 vs 26 kcal mol-1). (2) Two-step attack (preferred): for A, also the trioxyl diradical (TD) forms more easily (∆E‡=3 vs. 18). From both attacks PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences the next (spin-conserving) step entails O2 loss and formation of a stable product. In particular, PO gives O2 and an epoxide (EPO) upon O-O bond cleavage (for A and PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences B: ∆E‡=20 vs. 21). By contrast, from TD, 1O2 plus an oxepine (OX) is obtained in the A case (∆E‡= 6), while an epoxide is obtained again in the B case (∆E‡=4). Other spin-conserving processes PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences are possible, but they are less advantageous.





A second phase of the study explores the structure and stability of the ions derived from a PAH upon electron loss or protonation, which have PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences been detected under combustion conditions.


AE-P-36

^ SOURCES FOR PHENOLS AND CRESOLS IN URBAN AMBIENT AIR, MILAN (ITALY)


C. Carbone1,2, C. Astorga1, A. Mueller1, B. R. Larsen1, M. G. Perrone2, E PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences. Bolzacchini2, L.Ferrero2, V. Gianelle3, G. Mognaschi3

1Emissions and Health Unit, IES, EC-Joint Research Centre, 21020 Ispra (VA), Italy

2Department of Environmental Sciences, University of Milano-Bicocca, p.zza della Scienza PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences -20126 Milan

3ARPA Lombardia, Sezione Aria, v.le Juvara-20100 Milan, Italy


Particulate matter has gain significant attention since there is evidence of the adverse health effects due to the presence of this pollutant in the atmosphere. The PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences urban area of Milan (Italy) has been often showing high PM concentration values even above the EU limit of 50 µg/m3 for 24h. During the period 2001-2003 it has been found that this PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences limit was overpass 48% of the days. Due to the great concern of the regional authorities Recent results from smog chamber experiments have shown that mixtures of benzene, toluene, and NOx PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences, irradiated with UV light, produce secondary organic aerosols where nitrophenols and nitrocresols derivatives have been identified.

Nineteen cresol and phenol derivatives have been analyzed in gas and particulate phase samples of the Milan urban area PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences during a sampling campaign (17-27 May 2004).

In the particulate phase o-cresol, m- and p-cresol, 4-methyl-2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol have been quantified. The 4-nitrophenol results to be the most abundant PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences (341,4±137,3 pg/m3). Phenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol and 2,6-dinitro-p-cresol have been identified but not quantified since they are found to be under detection limit. It has been also possible to calculate the partition PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences between gas phase and particle phase for o-cresol, m-and p-cresol and 4-methyl-2-nitrophenol.

Finally, the analysis of PM from vehicles showed that phenols and cresols are primarily emitted by diesel PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences cars. Vehicles with old technology (EURO I) have emission factors up to 4-5 times higher than vehicles following new homologation standards.


AE-P-37

^ SPECIATION AND ROLE OF IRON IN CLOUD DROPLETS AT THE PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences PUY DE DÔME STATION


Angela Marinoni1, Marius Parazols2, Pierre Amato3, Paolo Laj3, Gilles Mailhot2, Sergio Zappoli1

1Dipartimento di Chimica Fisica e Inorganica, Università di Bologna, Italy. 2Laboratoire Photochimie Moléculaire PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences et Macromoléculaire, UMR CNRS 6505. 3Laboratoire de Météorologie Physique, UMR CNRS 6016.


Iron is the most abundant transition metal in the atmosphere and can play a significant role in cloudwater chemistry where its PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences reactivity is closely related to the partitioning between Fe(II) and Fe(III). The objective of this work is to determine the total iron content and the iron speciation in a free PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences tropospheric site, and to understand which factors influence these parameters.

We collected 147 samples of cloudwater during 34 cloud events over a period of four years at the puy de Dôme summit. Besides PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences iron we measured other chemical compounds, solar radiation, physico-chemical and meteorological parameters potentially connected with iron reactivity. The total iron concentrations ranged from 0.1 to 9.1 µM with the major frequency PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences occurring at low levels. The pH and presence of organic complexants seem to be the most significant factors connected with total dissolved iron; while the iron oxidation state seems to be an independent PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences factor. Light intensity, presence of complexants or oxidants (H2O2) do not influence the Fe(II)/Fe(Total) ratio, that was quite constant at about 0.75. This could be due to the potential PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences redox that forces the Fe(II)-Fe(III) couple to the reduced form or, more probably to the complexation by Natural Organic Matter, that can stabilize iron in its reduced form and PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences prevent further oxidation.

Our field measurements did not show the diurnal cycle observed in surface water and predicted by models of atmospheric chemistry. This result prompts a more careful review of the role PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences of iron and, by analogy, all the transition metals in atmospheric liquid phase, often over-estimated in the literature.


AE-P-38

^ HEALTH IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF INDUSTRIAL AIR POLLUTION IN A SMALL URBAN PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences AREA


Andrea Cecchin and Guido Perin,

Ca'Foscari University of Venice - Environmental Sciences Department


The area of interest is subject to frequent pollution phenomena, particulary for particulate matter in winter season. Although the PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences major sources of particulate matter pollution in urban zone are the traffic and domestic heating (in the area the wood stove are still very diffuse), the population considers the industrial pollution how a key PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences factor for the definition of the air quality.

The aim of the project is the quantitative assessment of the health effects referable to a productive sector, with the final purpose of PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences real risk evaluation. Since it isn’t possible to achive an in situ epidemiological study (the inhabitants number is too small), the method and results from WHO’s study “Health PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences impact assessment of air pollution in the eight major Italian cities” have been used, adjusted for population concerned and pollution’s level. For industrial sector has been calculated the contribution of primary and secondary PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences PM, the latter connected to emission of precursors (in particular NOX, SO2 and NH3): these gases have been corrected with suitable weighting factors. The dispersion of these pollutants has been described PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences by a gaussian model application in the area and processed by geostatistical methods in GIS environment. The central estimate that has been founded in residential zone has been used for the PART I: GC-MS SCREENING OF COMBUSTION AEROSOL - European Association for Chemical and Molecular Sciences health effects epidemiological assessment, estimating the weight of industrial air pollution in the area.


AE-P-39

^ ATMOSPHERIC POLLUTION AND CHRONIC RESPIRATORY AFFECTIONS

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