Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction


^ Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction

Shue 89 (Henry, Professor of Ethics and Public Life, Princeton University, “Nuclear Deterrence and Moral Restraint Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction, pp. 134-5)

But is it realistic to suppose that American citizens would risk not just their own lives but their families and their nation in using nuclear weapons to save Western Europe and other Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction free societies from Soviet domination, especially if the United States’ allies are not willing to risk nuclear destruction themselves? According to one 1984 poll, 74 percent of Americans queried believe “the U.S. should Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction not use nuclear weapons if the Russians invade Western Europe.” Nuclear Protectionists, however, would reply that further public debate might convince more Americans that deterrence cannot be had on the moral Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction cheap. If the United States is determined to deter a Soviet attack on Europe, it must have a moral nuclear strategy that it is willing to implement. Without effective population defenses, such a Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction strategy could require that the United States accept an unequal risk of nuclear destruction to ensure the survival of free society. In the extreme, this could mean that the United States must be willing Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction to sacrifice itself for values higher than its own national survival. Thus, Nuclear Protectionism views both Just War morality and national “self-centered” as unworkable foundations for U.S. security policy Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction.


^ Living without freedom transcends nuclear war

Mohan 93 – Professor at LSU (Brij, “Eclipse Of Freedom,” p. 3-4)


The ordeal of existence transcends the thermonuclear fever because the latter does not directly impact Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction the day-to-day operations of the common people. The fear of crime, accidents, loss of job, and health care on the one хэнд; and the scourges of racism, sexism, and agism on the Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction other хэнд have created a counterculture of denial and disbelief that has shattered the façade of civility. Civilization loses its significance when its social institutions have become counterproductive. It is Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction the aspect of the mega-crisis that we are concerned about. The “ordeal of existence”, as I see it, has three relevant facets: Crisis of modernity, Contradictions of paradigms, Complexity of social phenomenon Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction. Reinventing civility calls for an exposition of these elements without a vituperative intent. Each of these aspects has normative and structural dimension involving a host of theories. The politics, metaphors, and rhetoric, however, color Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction the shape and substance of each analytical output. Therefore, a value-neutral assessment cannot be a politically correct statement on the human condition.


^ A deontological framing maximizes the good by emphasizing rights Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction and acting on an individualist basis

Freeman 94 – Avalon Professor in the Humanities at the University of Pennsylvania, Ph.D. Harvard University, J.D. University of North Carolina (Samuel, “Utilitarianism, Deontology, and Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction the Priority of Right,” Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol. 23, No. 4, Autumn, pp. 313-349, http://www.jstor.org/stable/2265463)


Many moral views can admit that right acts in some sense promote the good. In Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction Kant, for example, all have a duty to promote the Realm of Ends; each person's doing so is, we might say, instrumental to realizing this ideal community. But here the goodness of Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction this end is not an independent variable that is being promoted; this good is just defined as the state of affairs in which conscientious moral agents all freely act Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction on and from the moral law. By acting and willing according to this principle, all treat the humanity of others as an end in itself. Moreover, to say this good is "maximized Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction" when everyone does his or her duty really adds nothing; and it misleads us as to the structure and content of Kant's principle of right. By contrast teleological views (1) define the good independent of Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction any moral concepts; and then (2) define the right purely in instrumental terms of principles of expedience, i.e., as what most effectively and probably realizes the greatest amount of good.

Both utilitarian Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction’s and non-utilitarian’s respect the moral principle of equality and freedom. However, only deontology can meet this principle because it allows for individual decisions

Freeman 94 (Samuel, Avalon Professor Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction in the Humanities at the University of Pennsylvania, Ph.D. Harvard University, J.D. University of North Carolina, “Utilitarianism, Deontology, and the Priority of Right,” Philosophy and Public Affairs, Vol. 23, No. 4, Autumn, pp. 313-349, , http Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction://www.jstor.org/stable/2265463)


Phillipa Foot has said that what makes consequentialism so compeling is "the rather simple thought that it can never be right to prefer a worse state of affairs Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction to a better."5 But deontological theories, suitably construed, can account for this "simple thought" just as well (for reasons I discuss in Section VI). The force of consequentialism must then Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction ie elsewhere: it embodies a powerful conception of practical reason. If we assume that rationality consists in maximizing an aggregate, and that in ethics it involves maximizing overall good, then we are able Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction to say that there is a rational choice between any two alternative actions, laws, or institutions. Therefore under all conceivable conditions, there is a uniquely rational, hence right, thing to do. Granted, it Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction may not be knowable by us, but the idea of maximizing the good provides a way to assign a truth value to any statement about what persons or groups Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction ought to do. No other conception of rationality offers such practical completeness. Sidgwick, well aware of the force of the idea of maximizing an aggregate, used it quite effectively to argue that hedonism Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction must be true, and that rational egoism and utilitarianism were the only two "rational methods" in ethics.6 He could not decide which of the two was more rational, but assuming that egoism is not Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction a moral conception at all, then, given Sidgwick's premises, utilitarianism prevails without opposition. These introductory remarks supply background I later refer to. My aim is to elucidate the teleology/deontology distinction Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction. I begin with the contention that teleological theories are not moral theories at all. Will Kymlicka argues that the teleological/deontological distinction relied on by Rawls and others is misleading. Not only Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction does the morally right act not maximize the good; any view which defines the right in this way is not a moral conception.7 Right actions, Kymlicka says, concern our duties Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction, and duties must be owed to someone. But if moral duty is defined as maximizing overall good, "Whom is it a duty to?" (LCC, p. 28). Kymlicka argues for the (Kantian) claim that morality Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction concerns respect for persons, not the good impersonally construed. And the most credible moral conceptions, the only ones worth attending to, hold that "each person matters equally," and deserves equal concern Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction and respect (LCC, p. 40). Kymlicka's aim here is not to attack teleological views, but to show that Rawls's teleological/deontological distinction cannot do the work Rawls wants; indeed it is "based on Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction a serious confusion" (LCC, p. 21). For utilitarians, Kymlicka claims, are just as committed to equality, equal respect for persons, and fair distributions as everyone else. The difference is they interpret these Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction abstract concepts differently. Here Kymlicka follows Ronald Dworkin's suggestion: "that Rawls and his critics all share the same 'egalitarian plateau': they agree that 'the interests of the members of Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction the community matter, and matter equally"' (LCC, p. 21). Utilitarians like Hare and Harsanyi, non-utilitarians like Rawls, Nozick, and Dworkin, and even many Perfectionists (Kymlicka mentions Marx), all accept that equal concern and respect Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction is the fundamental moral principle. "All these theories are deontological in that they spell out an ideal of fairness or equality for distinct individuals" (LCC, p. 26). If so, Kymlicka argues, the Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction dispute between utilitarians and their critics cannot be depicted in terms of Rawls's misleading distinction, or in terms of the priority of the right or the good. At issue in Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction these debates are different conceptions of the political value of equality. I shall argue (in Sections II and III) that Kymlicka, not Rawls, is culpable of "serious confusion." He confuses deontology-a claim about the Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction content of principles of right-with the principles that are invoked in justifying and applying the content of a moral view. Moreover, he confuses deontology with a related idea Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction, the priority of right. The priority of right has received a great deal of attention from Rawls's communitarian critics. This is surprising in view of the fact that Rawls has so Maintaining proper moral values is the only way to obtain a free society, which outweighs nuclear extinction little to say about it in Theory ofJustice.8


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