Language socialization in elementary school esl




LANGUAGE SOCIALIZATION IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL ESL:

MULTI-DIRECTIONAL SOCIALIZATION PROCESSES

Mariko Emura

University of Hawai‘i at Manoa


ABSTRACT


This paper examines a first grade beginning English as a Second Language (ESL) class in Hawaiian Elementary School, a public Language socialization in elementary school esl school in Honolulu. Using a Conversation Analysis (CA) approach, naturally occurring classroom interactions are analyzed from the language socialization (LS) perspective. Video- and audio-recordings of the class were Language socialization in elementary school esl мейд at regular intervals between October 2004 and April 2005. Focusing on a routine activity called “the Daily Message,” the socialization of the students as well as the teacher’s aide is discussed. Comparing data from early Language socialization in elementary school esl November and early April, it was found that both the students and the teacher’s aide have gained some interactional competence allowing them to participate more fully and effectively in the Language socialization in elementary school esl routine activity. It also showed that the roles of who is being a “good student” or “bad student” are constructed on a moment-by-moment basis by the participants through Language socialization in elementary school esl interaction. In addition, it was shown in the data how the students have different types of interactional competencies that they have brought with them to class. Some pedagogical implications are discussed based on Language socialization in elementary school esl these findings.


INTRODUCTION


This is a case study involving a beginning English as a Second Language (ESL) class for first grade students in a public elementary school in the city of Honolulu, Hawaii Language socialization in elementary school esl. It takes place in Hawaiian Elementary School1, which serves kindergarten through fifth grade, and is known for its unique location and its high percentage of students identified as ESL students. The district Language socialization in elementary school esl consists of more expensive high-rise condominiums and less expensive low-rise apartment buildings, which is reflected in the school’s cultural and socioeconomic diversity. During the 2004-2005 school year, when the data collection took Language socialization in elementary school esl place, Hawaiian Elementary had 184 ESL students, which accounted for 37.4% of the entire student population. In comparison, within the state of Hawaii for the same school year, only 8.6% of the students in Language socialization in elementary school esl the public school system were identified as ESL. Even within the complex district to which Hawaiian Elementary belongs (the city of Honolulu is divided into complex districts; Hawaiian Elementary School’s Language socialization in elementary school esl complex district has a total of 11 schools), only 21.5% of the students were identified as ESL (Hawaii State Department of Education [Hawaii DOE], October 28, 2005). This means that Hawaiian Elementary has a higher Language socialization in elementary school esl percentage of ESL students even compared to the neighboring schools in the same area within the city of Honolulu.

Students at this school come from a variety of ethnic backgrounds, mainly Japanese Language socialization in elementary school esl, Korean, Hawaiian/part-Hawaiian, Chinese, White, Filipino, as well as Samoan, Black, Hispanic, Portuguese, and Native American backgrounds. Nearly 60% of the students in the school receive free or reduced cost lunch, which is often used Language socialization in elementary school esl as a measure to indicate the socioeconomic status of the school district (Hawaii DOE, February 1, 2006).

Because of the high percentage of ESL students, the ESL program is rather large. The ESL program Language socialization in elementary school esl at Hawaiian Elementary, in the 2004-2005 school year, included two full-time teachers, as well as several part-time teachers and paraprofessionals. In addition, there were several volunteer tutors who came Language socialization in elementary school esl in regularly to work with the ESL students. According to the Hawaii DOE (date unknown), one full-time ESL teacher is allocated for every 100 ESL students. Hawaiian Elementary seems to be fortunate that Language socialization in elementary school esl it has two full-time ESL teachers. The program, because of the large number of students that it needs to service, is a pull-out program in which the students spend most Language socialization in elementary school esl of their time in their mainstream classrooms and come to the ESL classroom during designated times for instruction. The students are divided into classes depending on their proficiency and grade levels. Some classes Language socialization in elementary school esl are for students in a particular grade level, while others may have students from different grade levels.

This study examines the phenomenon of language socialization in a first grade2 beginning Language socialization in elementary school esl ESL class, through detailed analysis of the audio- and video-recordings of classroom interactions using conversation analysis (CA). It attempts to show how these students, who had no or very limited English proficiency Language socialization in elementary school esl and little or no previous school experiences learn to become competent members of the ESL class through participating in classroom routine activities. At the same time, it examines how the teacher’s aide Language socialization in elementary school esl, who is a novice teacher, becomes socialized into the classroom practices through interactions with the classroom teacher and the students.


^ CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK


The main framework for analysis in this study is that of Language socialization in elementary school esl language socialization (for example, Garrett & Baquedano-López, 2002; Kramsch, 2002; Schieffelin & Ochs, 1986). According to Schieffelin and Ochs (1986), language socialization consists of two parts, “socialization to use the language”—the “acquisition Language socialization in elementary school esl of the appropriate uses of language as part of acquiring social competence”, and “socialization through the use of language”—“how language is a medium or tool in the socialization process” (p. 167). They claim that the Language socialization in elementary school esl language acquisition process and socialization process are integrated. Garrett and Baquedano-López (2002) summarize the socialization process as “the process through which a child or other novice acquires the Language socialization in elementary school esl knowledge, orientations, and practices that enable him or her to participate effectively and appropriately in the social life of a particular community,” and is “realized to a great extent through the use of Language socialization in elementary school esl language, the primary symbolic medium through which cultural knowledge is communicated and instantiated, negotiated and contested, reproduced and transformed” (p. 339). They emphasize that the socialization process is not a unidirectional phenomenon, but Language socialization in elementary school esl rather a bidirectional one, involving negotiation on the parts of both the “expert” and the “novice”, and even young children who are considered “novices” have the potential to become “experts” in certain contexts Language socialization in elementary school esl. Moreover, these categories are not fixed, but rather, they are very fluid, and they shift on a moment-by-moment basis during interaction, as shown in Jacoby and Gonzalez’s (1991) study Language socialization in elementary school esl of university physics research team meetings. Although the language socialization framework was originally developed to examine the socialization of young children, it is now being used in wider contexts. It is believed that Language socialization in elementary school esl socialization is a life-long process and that people are socialized into different communities (for example, institutions or professions) at various moments during their lifetimes (secondary socialization as opposed to primary socialization Language socialization in elementary school esl).

There have been a great many language socialization studies within the field of applied linguistics (e.g. Clancy, 1999; Duff, 2002; Kanagy, 1999; Kramsch, 2002; Morita, 2000; Pallotti, 2002; Watson-Gegeo, 1992; Willett 1995). For instance, Willett’s (1995) study Language socialization in elementary school esl was set in a first grade mainstream classroom, focusing on ESL students and how they learn to participate in the various classroom activities. Willett particularly focused on three ESL girls who sat together Language socialization in elementary school esl and worked together during phonics seatwork, and how they asked for help from the aides and the way they helped each other out. She also examined how the girls appropriated Language socialization in elementary school esl words and phrases frequently used by their teacher, aides, and peers, and how they interacted with non-ESL peers.

Another classroom study involving young children is Kanagy’s (1999) study, which was conducted in a Japanese Language socialization in elementary school esl immersion kindergarten and focused on how the English-speaking children learned to participate in three routine activities using Japanese, which included greetings, taking attendance, and doing personal introductions. Kanagy Language socialization in elementary school esl found that repetition and scaffolding help children to develop interactional competence, by imitating the teachers’ verbal and non-verbal behaviors. Children were able to achieve competence, at least within the interactional routines, although it Language socialization in elementary school esl was not clear if they were able to apply the knowledge to new, similar situations.

Language socialization studies often фокус on certain classroom or other educational (routine) activities, as in Kanagy’s Language socialization in elementary school esl (1999) study. Morita (2000) examined the socialization of graduate students in a Teaching English as Second Language graduate program through oral academic presentations (OAPs) in seminars. The study showed how both native and non Language socialization in elementary school esl-native students became socialized into the oral academic discourse while they “prepared for, observed, performed, and reviewed OAPs” (p. 279). Morita found that the particular context that she examined “involved more Language socialization in elementary school esl dynamic, moment-by-moment negotiations of expertise among participants who contributed different knowledge, experiences, and specializations to the group” (p. 302).

Similarly, Young and Miller (2004) focused on a specific activity, ESL writing conferences Language socialization in elementary school esl, using the framework of CA and interactional competence. They examined how one adult ESL learner participated in an unfamiliar activity, a writing conference with the ESL instructor. It showed how the ESL learner gained Language socialization in elementary school esl interactional competence by participating in the “revision talks” of the writing conferences.

Of particular interest is Watson-Gegeo’s (1992) study on the Solomon Islands, in which she examined the differences in home and Language socialization in elementary school esl school socializations of the children, and what seemed to be the cause of these children not being successful in the school setting. She examined the situation from both micro and macro Language socialization in elementary school esl perspectives, giving it a “thick explanation” (p. 52). On the micro level, Watson-Gegeo carefully examined recorded interactional data both at home and at school, and on the macro level, she Language socialization in elementary school esl investigated the larger, socio-political context in which the interactions took place. She mentioned that in order to really examine what is going on, it is necessary to look at both micro Language socialization in elementary school esl- and macro- contexts, and offer a “thick explanation.”

In the present study, both “socialization to use the language” and “socialization through the use of language” will be examined. The students are being Language socialization in elementary school esl taught the English language, and at the same time, they are also being taught the expected student behavior in the classroom through the use of the English language. The main фокус of the ESL class Language socialization in elementary school esl is to teach the English language, but especially for the younger students who are not used to being in formal classroom settings, the teaching of expected classroom (or school) behavior Language socialization in elementary school esl plays an important role as well, in mainstreaming these students.

For example, at Hawaiian Elementary, the students are taught to sit in the “learning position”, which means that they are to fold Language socialization in elementary school esl their hands on their lap or on their desk, and look at the teacher with their mouths closed. When they are walking in the hallway together to go somewhere as a Language socialization in elementary school esl class, they are taught to line up, hold their hands behind their backs, and walk quietly. Other rules include raising their hands for permission to speak in class, not shouting out answers Language socialization in elementary school esl when the teacher asks a question of the class.

In order to examine what kinds of socialization processes are taking place in the classroom, the classroom interaction will be analyzed using the conversation Language socialization in elementary school esl analysis (CA) approach. The interactional data will be transcribed in detail and analyzed by looking at the sequential organization. The interaction is embedded in the context, and the participants co-construct Language socialization in elementary school esl the meaning through the interaction.

There are controversies among conversation analysts in terms of what is and is not allowed in CA. Those who engage in “pure” CA (for example, Sacks and Schegloff), trying Language socialization in elementary school esl to identify the machinery and structures of a talk-in-interaction, and frown upon using ethnographic and/or contextual data to analyze the given interactional data (ten Have, 1999). On the other хэнд Language socialization in elementary school esl, there are researchers who are engaged in “applied” or “institutional” CA. They argue that such ethnographic and contextual data are necessary in conducting CA. For instance, Moerman (1988) argued for the integration of CA Language socialization in elementary school esl and ethnography, which he calls “culturally contexted CA.” What this means is that the interaction cannot be fully interpreted and understood unless the cultural information of the context is examined Language socialization in elementary school esl as well. Another researcher who used CA and ethnography together is Goodwin (1990), in which she studied the social organization of Black children of Maple Street in Philadelphia through detailed analysis of Language socialization in elementary school esl their interaction.

More recently, within the field of applied linguistics, some researchers have been considering the integration of CA in classroom research. One example is He (2004), who examined classroom interactions in Chinese Heritage Language socialization in elementary school esl Language schools. Though she emphasized the fact that “CA is not concerned with what is not observable” and that “CA is not a learning theory,” she stated that “if we view acquisition as Language socialization in elementary school esl a problem-solving process and consider interaction and acquisition as symbiotic with each other, CA studies of classroom interaction can be valuable for understanding the discourse processes that could promote L Language socialization in elementary school esl2 learning and teaching” (p. 580). Another study, conducted by Mondada and Pekarek Doehler (2004), integrates CA and sociocultural theory in their analysis of French as Second Language classroom. This study also suggests the possibility Language socialization in elementary school esl of examining classroom interaction using CA in a way that contributes to the field of language learning. In a recent book, Seedhouse (2004) explored the use of CA in language classrooms, and an edited Language socialization in elementary school esl book by Gardner and Wagner (2004) has a collection of second language studies using CA methodologies.


^ THE PRESENT STUDY


Purpose of the Study

Following these previous studies, the present study will attempt to integrate the Language socialization in elementary school esl use of ethnographic data and the CA approach. Using Watson-Gegeo’s (1992) term, the present study will try to offer a “thicker” explanation of what is going on in the classroom by examining Language socialization in elementary school esl the interaction from a micro perspective using CA, and making it “thicker” by using other ethnographic data in order to interpret the interaction.

Previous socialization studies, although they emphasize Language socialization in elementary school esl the bi-directionality of socialization processes, do not particularly seem to investigate the development or changes on the part of the “experts.” The aim of the present study is to examine the language socialization Language socialization in elementary school esl processes that are taking place in the first grade beginning ESL classroom through detailed sequential analysis of the classroom interaction. It also aims to examine the socialization of both the students and Language socialization in elementary school esl the teacher’s aide. Language socialization is taken as a multi-directional and non-linear process which is co-constructed by the participants on a moment-by-moment basis in the Language socialization in elementary school esl interaction. The research questions are as follows:

  1. What kind of socialization processes are taking place and how? Do the participants gain interactional competence to participate more fully and appropriately in a routine activity?

  2. What Language socialization in elementary school esl types of norms and rules do the participants orient to? How and when do they orient to them?

  3. What are the pedagogical implications of the findings, if any?


Research Site Language socialization in elementary school esl, Participants, and Data Collection

As mentioned earlier, the research site is a first grade beginning ESL class at a public elementary school in Honolulu, Hawaii. This class met each morning from 8:30 to 10:00am for 90-minute Language socialization in elementary school esl sessions. During the course of the school year, there were between seven and ten students in the class. One of the characteristics of ESL classes in this school (and perhaps in most Language socialization in elementary school esl other schools) is that the students are coming and going at all times throughout the year. Some students moved into the district, some moved out, others were placed in different level Language socialization in elementary school esl classes as the year progressed to better meet their individual needs. When the school year started, there were eight students in the class. At the end of the school year, there Language socialization in elementary school esl were nine, and of those nine, only two students had been in the class for the whole school year.

The students in the class were from various backgrounds. They were from Korea, Japan Language socialization in elementary school esl, China, Philippines, and Micronesia (Pohnpei). Some students had attended part of kindergarten at Hawaiian Elementary; others came to Hawaii just before being enrolled in first grade. Some had no previous school experiences in Language socialization in elementary school esl their home country, while others had some school experience. A few of the students came with some English proficiency, while others had to start from the very beginning. The students Language socialization in elementary school esl began the school year by learning the letters of the alphabet and their corresponding sounds. The classroom teacher, Ms. Johnson, is an experienced, white teacher. She holds a master’s degree Language socialization in elementary school esl in ESL and also has experience working with deaf children.

The teacher’s aide (me), a master’s degree student in the Department of Second Language Studies at the University of Hawaii at Manoa, was Language socialization in elementary school esl involved with this particular class throughout the 2004-2005 school year. I am Japanese. I was an ESL student when I was in second and third grades, living in Illinois and southern California Language socialization in elementary school esl. I spent second through fourth grade and seventh through tenth grades in the American public school system. Entering the master’s degree program right after obtaining a bachelor’s degree in Japan Language socialization in elementary school esl, I had no previous teaching experience. From August to December 2004, I was taking a teaching practicum course and was involved in this particular class as a student teacher beginning in late August Language socialization in elementary school esl, shortly after the school year started. At that time, I was present in the class for three days a week. From January 2005 until the end of the school year, I was Language socialization in elementary school esl present in the class as a volunteer teacher’s aide at least twice a week. All through the school year, I was very involved in the class. At any given time, I might Language socialization in elementary school esl have been leading a whole class activity, supervising a writing activity, working with individual students on their reading, or sorting and preparing teaching materials3.

Here are the key student participants Language socialization in elementary school esl4 who appear in the following data analysis.

  1. Amanda is a Korean girl who was in the class from the beginning of the school year to the very end. She has a twin brother Language socialization in elementary school esl, who was in a different ESL class. She could be quite outspoken, but at other times, she spoke so softly that it was difficult to hear what she was saying.

  2. Amy is Language socialization in elementary school esl a girl from the Philippines, who joined the class in mid-October. She is a shy, quiet girl, but she мейд good progress over the course of the school year.

  3. Derek is a half Language socialization in elementary school esl-Japanese half-American boy, whose first language is Japanese. He joined the class at the very end of August. Initially, he spoke very little English, and in the beginning Language socialization in elementary school esl, Ms. Johnson asked me to provide Derek with some Japanese instructions regarding homework. After he realized that I speak Japanese, he only addressed me in Japanese. I refused to speak to him in Japanese Language socialization in elementary school esl and provided only English responses, to which Derek showed resistance, insisting that he is Japanese and he only spoke Japanese. In a teaching journal entry in mid-February, I noted that Derek no Language socialization in elementary school esl longer resisted using English responses, though he still sometimes addressed me in Japanese. He was very out-going and vocal from the beginning, despite his insistence that he does not Language socialization in elementary school esl speak English.

  4. Eddie came from China and joined the class in late February. When he first came, he needed to start from learning the letters of the alphabet and their corresponding Language socialization in elementary school esl sounds, which he only had partial knowledge of. He is a very determined student and мейд a lot of effort to speak in English.

  5. Elizabeth came from Micronesia (Pohnpei) in the beginning Language socialization in elementary school esl of November. She had relatively good oral English language skills and spoke a lot, but needed much instruction on reading and writing skills.

  6. Ellen also came from Micronesia (Pohnpei) in the beginning of Language socialization in elementary school esl November. She and Elizabeth are twin sisters, and it took Ms. Johnson and me some time to tell the two girls apart. As with Elizabeth, Ellen also had relatively good oral English language skills Language socialization in elementary school esl, but needed a lot of instruction on reading and writing.

  7. Jaewoo is a Korean boy who was in class throughout the school year. He is clearly a very smart boy, but Language socialization in elementary school esl he had good days and bad days. On good days, he spoke a lot and answered lots of questions, and did very well on reading and writing activities. On the other хэнд Language socialization in elementary school esl, when he was having bad days, he refused to speak, had problems focusing, and did not do as well as he could on good days with reading and writing activities.

  8. Jonathan is also Language socialization in elementary school esl a boy from Korea. He joined the class at the beginning of September. Ms. Johnson and I were very concerned about him in the very beginning because he was Language socialization in elementary school esl having a great deal of trouble adjusting to the new environment. He settled down in about two months, and started doing very well, so that in early March, he was moved up to a higher Language socialization in elementary school esl level ESL class.

  9. Karl 5 is a boy who moved into this class from a higher level ESL class in early March. He had a very good command of oral Language socialization in elementary school esl English, but his reading and writing skills were very shaky, which is why he was moved into this class.

  10. Yuya is a boy from Japan who was in the class from the beginning Language socialization in elementary school esl of the school year. He was very supportive of Derek when Derek first joined the class. Yuya was doing very well, and he was moved up to a higher level ESL class in early Language socialization in elementary school esl March, along with Jonathan.

The class took place in a large classroom divided into two parts by using moveable boards (see Figure 1; for overall classroom layout, see Appendix E), and on Language socialization in elementary school esl the other side of the boards, there was another ESL class going on at the same time. Sometimes, the goings-on in the other class distracted the students, since there was no real Language socialization in elementary school esl boundary between the two sides of the classroom to shut out sounds. Oral activities and some reading activities took place between the white board and the writing table. The students sat Language socialization in elementary school esl in chairs placed in a semi-circle, facing the board, and the teacher or I sat by the white board facing the students. Writing activities and most reading activities took Language socialization in elementary school esl place at the writing table.



Figure 1 Classroom Area Layout (One-fourth of a large classroom)


Naturalistic classroom interaction data were collected by video- and audio-recording the class once a week from mid-October Language socialization in elementary school esl to mid-December. Follow-up data were collected once a month in February, March, and April 2005. The video camera was placed at the back of the classroom, while the audio recorder was Language socialization in elementary school esl placed on the side, toward the front of the classroom. Field notes were kept in the form of a teaching journal throughout the school year. In addition, school statistics were obtained Language socialization in elementary school esl from the Hawaii Department of Education website in order to better contextualize the data.


Data Selection

After the first recording was мейд, a rough transcript of the class interaction was мейд. Because a Language socialization in elementary school esl 90-minute class is too long as a unit of analysis, one routine activity was selected after going over this initial transcript, following previous studies such as Kanagy (1999), Morita (2000), and Young and Miller (2004). For the Language socialization in elementary school esl subsequent recordings, only the selected activity was transcribed for further analysis. A total of six recordings were roughly transcribed.

The selected routine activity is called “the Daily Message.” Each morning Language socialization in elementary school esl, a short message was put up on the white board by Ms. Johnson or me. The students read the message out loud as a class. The message routinely included greetings, day of the week Language socialization in elementary school esl, date, and closing. Other contents included things like the weather, what they will do in class that day, or simple questions (such as “What did you do over the Language socialization in elementary school esl weekend?” or “Did you read at home last night?”). After they read the message out loud, they were asked to come up to the board one by one to circle particular words. At the Language socialization in elementary school esl beginning of the school year, the tasks were quite simple: “Who can circle a word that starts with the sound /b/?” or “Who can circle the word ‘you’?” As the students became Language socialization in elementary school esl more proficient, the tasks became more difficult and involved opposite words, rhyming words, and number of syllables. Later in the year, when they were learning about sentences, the students were Language socialization in elementary school esl also asked to identify the beginnings and ends of sentences, and to count the number of sentences.

This activity was chosen because of its everyday occurrence, as well as its complexity. It involved multiple Language socialization in elementary school esl skills, including reading, speaking, listening, and conforming to classroom rules that are typical in American educational settings. These rules included raising their hands to speak, sitting up in their chairs, not interrupting Language socialization in elementary school esl the teacher, and following instructions. All of these skills are used in other classroom activities as well, so “the Daily Message” activity was chosen with the hope that the findings may Language socialization in elementary school esl be applicable to other activities that are often found in classrooms. Also, choral activities, such as reciting or reading out loud as a class seem to be a common activity in language classrooms Language socialization in elementary school esl (for example, van Dam, 2002). It was also chosen, because I, who started to teach portions of the lessons in mid-September, frequently led this routine activity.

For this study, “the Daily Message” activity Language socialization in elementary school esl from two class sessions will be analyzed in detail. The first is from early November, and the second is from early April. Both were taught by be and were selected in an Language socialization in elementary school esl attempt to see if any changes or development can be seen through close analysis of the interaction between the students and me. Closer examination the two detailed transcripts revealed that Language socialization in elementary school esl there were differences in terms of transitions between activities or tasks. Transitions in classroom interactions have been studied previously (see for example, Markee, 2004).

From the teaching journal, it was apparent that Language socialization in elementary school esl transition (Ms. Johnson called it “timing,” i.e., timing to move on to the next activity or task) was one of the aspects of my teaching that needed to be improved. Ms. Johnson had Language socialization in elementary school esl mentioned again and again that I am taking too long to move from one thing to another. It is a balance between giving the students a chance to think and talk, and Language socialization in elementary school esl keeping up the pace so that more will get done in one class session and the students’ attention will be maintained (if there are long silent intervals, they will lose фокус). In Language socialization in elementary school esl the teaching journal, I noted on March 14, 2005 that Ms. Johnson had commented that I am “getting better with the ‘timing’ thing.” So what had changed between November and April?

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