International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20


Tulane Environmental Law Journal 14(no.1, Wint 2000):171-. (v.12,#4)


Boulding, Kenneth E. ^ Towards A New Economics: Critical Essays on Ecology, Distribution and Other Themes: (Aldershot: Edward Elgar, 1992). Reviewed by David Alden in Environmental Values International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 4(1995):86-87. (EV)


Boulter, Michael, Extinction: Evolution and the End of Man. London: Fourth Estate, 2002. Nature is a self-organizing system. If the system is disrupted, nature will do what it must to restore International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 balance, and one of its tools is extinction. The science of life, and the chilling effect that humans have had on the planet. The world will adapt and survive; humanity most probably International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 will not. Boulter is in paleobiology at the University of East London, author of the text Basic Paleontology. (v.13,#4)


Boulting, Noel E., "The Aesthetics of Nature," ^ Philosophy in the Contemporary World 6(no. 3-4, Fall International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20-Winter, 1999):21-34. Three paradigms for aesthetic experience of nature: (1) Specularism, seeing nature as a picture, (2) Scientific Exemplarism, grasping aesthetic experience through the categories of scientific enquiry, and (3) Perspectivalism, a more phenomenological relation between International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 the experienced and the experience. After the historical development which fashioned Specularism's approach to aesthetics has been indicated and the ahistorical nature of Scientific Exemplarism has been explained, the relative strengths International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 of these three paradigms are explored. The implication of the third are related to a possible spiritual view of nature. Boulting lives in Upchurch, Nr. Sittingbourne, Kent, UK. (v.11,#2)


Boulting, Noel. To Be or International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Not to Be Philosophical: A Triptree Inspector Decides. London: Minerva Press, 2001. Boulting gives his readers an introduction to philosophical inquiry by examining issues of environmental aesthetics and ecological ethics International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 which arise in an actual public inquiry into the creation of a landfill site. (v.13,#4)


Bouma, Katherine, "Dam Removal Restores Cahaba River Marine Life," Mobile (Alabama) Register, November 22, 2004, p.5B. A dam, or International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 something like a dam, a concrete plug with three foot culverts, and preventing fish travel upstream, has been removed from the Cahaba River, the (otherwise) longest free flowing river in Alabama. This permits the International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 river regaining populations of fish, snails and other wildlife. The dam was once placed in the river by a coal company; when the Presbyterian Church bought the property it encouraged International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 the removal, which required the efforts and funding of a number of agencies. (v.14, #4)


Bouma-Prediger, Steven, "Why Care for Creation?: From Prudence to Piety," ^ Christian Scholar's Review 27(1998):277-297. "So why International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 care for creation? For many reasons--many good reasons. Because our own existence is imperiled. Because we owe it to our children. Because an earth-friendly way of life is more joyful. Because various International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 forms of oppression are of a piece. Because certain non-human creatures are entitled to our care. Because creation is valuable for its own sake. Because God says so. Because International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 we are God's image-bearers. Because grace begets gratitude and gratitude care. Because, in sum, care for creation in integral to what it means to be a Christian--it is an important part International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 of our piety, our spirituality, our collective way of being authentically Christian" (p. 296). (v9,#2)


Bouma-Prediger, Steven, "Is Christianity Responsible for the Ecological Crisis?" ^ Christian Scholar's Review 25(1995):146-156. (v9,#2)


Bouma-Prediger International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20, Steven, "Creation Care and Character: The Nature and Necessity of the Ecological Virtues," Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith 50 (no. 1, March 1998):6-21. Virtue theory is a neglected but significant area of research in ecological ethics International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20. What exactly is a virtue? Are there particular virtues that arise from a biblically informed Christian ecological ethic? Are they merely nice to have or are they necessary? Certain virtues International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20--like frugality, humility, and wisdom--are indispensable if Christians are responsibly to fulfill their calling to be earthkeepers. Certain character traits are central to creation care. Bouma-Prediger is in the Department of International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Religion, Hope College, Holland, MI. (v9,#2)


Bouma-Prediger, Steven, ^ For the Beauty of the Earth: A Christian Vision for Creation Care. Grand Rapids, MI: Eerdmans, 2001. Received a 2002 Award of Merit from International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Christianity Today. Scientific and biblical reasons for caring for the Earth.


Bouma-Prediger, Steven. The Greening of Theology: The Ecological Models of Rosemary Radford Ruether, Joseph Sittler, and Jurgen Moltmann. Atlanta International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20: Scolars Press, 1996. 338pp. $35.95 cloth, $23.95 paper. Against the charge that the Christian tradition is ecologically bankrupt, the author demonstrates the intellectual and spiritual resources available within Christianity for addressing ecological issues. (v8,#2)


Bourassa, Steven C International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20. The Aesthetics of Landscape. London: Belhaven Press, 1991. Landscape assessment, architecture, aesthetics of nature. Especially interested in developing a framework for landscape aesthetics that reaches beyond biology to incorporate the cultural component International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 of landscapes. Aesthetic experience functions at three basic levels: biological, cultural, and personal. (v.8,#4) Reviewed by John Haldane, Environmental Values 3(1994):173-182.


Bourdeau, Philippe, Fasella, P.M., and Teller, A., ed., ^ Environmental Ethics: Man International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20's Relationship with Nature, Interaction with Science. Luxembourg: Commission of the European Communities, 1990. Papers from the Sixth Economic Summit Conference on Bioethics, Val Duchesse, Brussels, May 10-12, 1989, called by the Economic Summit Nations (G International Society for Environmental Ethics - 207). A Working Party was commissioned to produce a Code of Environmental Practice, with R. J. Berry as chair. The code can be found in R. J. Berry, ed., Environmental Dilemmas International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20: Ethics and Decisions (London: Chapman and Hall, 1992), 253-62, essentially a stewardship ethic. The Bourdeau volume is not easy to obtain in the U.S.; only the libraries at Duke University and at the University of International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 North Texas seem to have it. (v6,#2)


Bourland, Thomas R., and Stroup, Richard L. "Rent Payments as Incentives: Making Endangered Species Welcome on Private Lands." Journal of Forestry 94, no.4 (1996): 18. (v7, #3)


Bourne, Charles B International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20. "The International Law Association's Contribution to International Water Resources Law", Natural Resources Journal 36(no.2, 1996):155.


Bousé, Derek, Wildlife Films. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2000. 296 pages. $ 22.50 paper. (EE v.12,#1)


Boutet, JC; Weishampel International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20, JF, "Spatial pattern analysis of pre- and post-hurricane forest canopy structure in North Carolina, USA," Landscape Ecology 18(no.6, 2003):553-559. (v.14, #4)


Bouvier, Leon F., and Grant, Lindsey, How Many Americans? Population, Immigration, and International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 the Environment. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1994. 174 pages. $ 12.00. (v.8,#4)


Bouvier, Leon F. and Lindsey Grant, How Many Americans? Population, Immigration, and the Environment. San Francisco: Sierra Club Books, 1995. 192 pages. $ 12.00. The population of the International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 United States has tripled within this century, and our overconsumption of resources is a leading cause of many international environmental problems including acid rain and global warming. Stabilizing the International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 size of the American population is crucial, for our own sakes amd the sake of the planet. Lowering immigration levels is necessary to achieve environmental sustainability. Bouvier is a demographer, former Vice-President International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 of the Population Reference Bureau and an adjunct professor at Tulane University. (v8,#1)


Bowcutt, F., "Book Review: ^ Science and Ecosystem Management in the National Parks. William L. Halvorson and Gary E. Davis, Eds. (Tucson International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20: The University of Arizona Press, Tucson, 1996)," Human Ecology 31(no. 3, 2003): 491-494.


Bowden, Matthew W. "An Overview of the National Estuary Program", Natural Resources & Environment 11(no.2, 1996):35.


Bowers, C. A. "The Case against International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 John Dewey as an Environmental and Eco Justice Philosopher." Environmental Ethics 25(2003):25 42. Environmentally oriented philosophers and educational theorists are now attempting to clarify how the ideas of John Dewey can be used as International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 the basis for changing cultural practices that contribute to the ecological crisis. Although Dewey can be interpreted as a nonanthropocentric thinker and his method of experimental inquiry can be used in eco International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 management projects, Dewey should not be regarded as an environmental and eco justice philosopherCand by extension, his followers should not be regarded in this light. (1) Dewey's emphasis on an experimental mode of inquiry International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 did not take account of the knowledge systems of other culturesCparticularly cultures that are more ecologically centered. (2) Dewey's understanding of language prevented him from recognizing how the root metaphors (meta cognitive schemata International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20) he took for granted were also the basis, with several exceptions, of the Industrial Revolution. (3) Dewey's failure to understand the complex nature of tradition, including the different ways in International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 which intergenerational knowledge is shared and renewed, makes it difficult for his followers to address a central eco justice issueCwhich is to regenerate within diverse cultural communities the non commodified forms of International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 knowledge, skills, and relationships that enable individuals and communities to have a smaller ecological footprint. (EE)


Bowers, C. A., The Culture of Denial: Why the Environmental Movement Needs a Strategy for Reforming Universities and International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Public Schools. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1997. The flaws in contemporary education. The complicity of the educational establishment in supporting the social and economic institutions that have produced International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 the environmental crisis. Education from the primary grades through the universities needs to be totally reformed to support new, ecologically sustainable societies. Bowers formerly taught at the University of Oregon and at International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Portland State University. (v8,#3)


Bowers, C. A., Education, Cultural Myths, and the Ecological Crisis: Toward Deep Changes. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993. 232 pages. $ 12.95 paper. "The cultural dimensions of the International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 ecological crisis raise profound questions for educators who play such a key role in passing on the cultural templates to the next generation." Most teaching in U.S. schools and universities, whether liberal International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 or conservative, promotes attitudes that lead to overconsump­tion and pollution. Most reform advocates do not see how there must be a "radical reform of the educational process." Bowers teaches at Portland International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 State University and at the University of Oregon. (v4,#2)


Bowers, C. A. "The Conservative Misinterpretation of the Educational Ecological Crisis." Environmental Ethics 14(1992):101 27. Conservative educational critics (e.g., Allan Bloom International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20, Mortimer Adler, and E. D. Hirsch, Jr.) have succeeded in framing the debate on the reform of education in a manner that ignores the questions that should be asked about how our International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 most fundamental cultural assumptions are contributing to the ecological crisis. in this paper, I examine the deep cultural assumptions embedded in their reform proposals that further exacerbate the crisis, giving special attention to their view International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 of rational empowerment, the progressive nature of change, and their anthropocentric view of the universe. I argue that their form of conservatism must be supplanted by the more biocentric conservatism of such International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 thinkers as Aldo Leopold, Wendell Berry, and Gary Snyder. Bowers is at the College of Education, University of Oregon, Eugene, OR. (EE)


Bowers, C. A., Education, Cultural Myths, and the Ecological Crisis International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20: Toward Deep Changes. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993. What our priorities should be in public school and university education as we face the environmental crisis. How International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 our cultural beliefs contribute to the accelerating degradation of the environment as the most fundamental challenge we face. All other social and educational reforms must be assessed in terms of whether they mitigate or International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 exacerbate the ecological crisis. Thought patterns formed in the past are reproduced through the metaphorical language used in the classroom, with the result that both conservative and liberal educators and their critics ignore International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 the ecological crisis. Aldo Leopold, Wendell Berry, and Gregory Bateson suggest a more ecologically sustainable ideology. Bowers teaches education at Portland State University, Oregon. (v6,#2)


Bowers, J, "Planning ahead the International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 difficulties facing those wishing to live alternative and sustainable lives in the UK," Ecologist 32(no.1, 2002):39-41. (v.13, #3)


Bowie, G. Lee, Higgins, Kathleen M., and Michaels, Meredith W., eds., Thirteen Questions in Ethics and Social Philosophy International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20, 2nd ed. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace College Publishers, 1998. An anthology in 13 chapters, each a question. Chapter 11 is, "What Should We Sacrifice for Animals and the Environment?" Readings from Allen Ginsburg, Tom Regan International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20, Peter Singer, Aldo Leopold, Mark Sagoff, Annette Baier, Marti Kheel, and John Stuart Mill. Bowie is at Mt. Holyoke College, Michaels at Hampshire College, and Higgins at the University of Texas at International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Austin. (v9,#1)


Bowie, G. Lee, Kathleen Higgens, Meredith W. Michaels, eds., Thirteen Questions in Ethics. Chicago: Harcourt Brace Jovano­vich, 1992. Section 11 is, "What Should We Sacrifice for Animals and International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 the Environment?" Readings: Alan Ginsberg, "Ballade of Poisons"; Tom Regan, "The Nature and Possibility of an Environmental Ethic"; Aldo Leopold, "The Land Ethic"; Peter Singer, "Not for Humans Only: The Place of Non-Humans in International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Envi­ronmental Issues"; Mark Sagoff, "Animal Liberation and Environ­mental Ethics: Bad Marriage, Quick Divorce"; Annette Baier, "For the Sake of Future Generations"; Marti Kheel, "The Liberation of Nature International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20: A Circular Affair"; John Stuart Mill, "The Glories of Nature?" (v3,#1)


Bowie, Norman E., ed. ^ Ethical Issues in Government. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 4(1982):373 75.


Bowker, JM; Newman, DH; Warren, RJ; Henderson, DW, "Estimating the International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Economic Value of Lethal Versus Nonlethal Deer Control in Suburban Communities", Society and Natural Resources 16(no.2, 2003):143-158.


Bowker, John and Holm, Jean, eds., Attitudes to Nature. London: Pinter Publishers, New York: St. Martins, 1994. Also: New International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 York: Cassell/Continuum. 192 pages. $ 18.95. (v.9,#4)


Bowler, I, "Review of: Brookfield, H., Exploring agrodiversity", Progress in Human Geography 27(no.1, 2003):123.


Bowler, I., "Book Review: Buller, H. and Hoggart, K. Agricultural Transformation, Food International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 and Environment: Perspectives on European Rural Policy and Planning," Progress in Human Geography 26(no.5, 2002): 685. (v.13,#4)


Bowles, Ian A., Rice, R. E., Mittermeier, R. A., and da Foneca, G.A.B., "Logging and Tropical International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Forest Conservation," Science 280(1998):1899-1900. Environmental and development organizations have poured hundreds of millions of dollars into sustainable forestry, but these investments have produced few results. Outside plantations, less than 0.02 percent of the world's International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 tropical forests are managed sustainably for timber. The major barrier to sustainable forestry's success is basic economics. Reaping a one-time harvest of ancient trees today is simply International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 more profitable than managing for future harvests. The World Bank is the largest funder of forestry projects worldwide. In the face of a World Bank initiative to establish 500 million acres of sustainable forestry International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 by 2005, scientific evidence is mounting that sustainable harvests may damage biodiversity more than standard logging practices. Summary and further details in Tangley, Laura, "Sustainable Logging Proves Unsupportable," U.S. News and World International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Report, June 29, 1998, pp. 63-64. (v9,#2)


Bowman, Douglas, Beyond the Modern Mind: The Spiritual and Ethical Challenge of the Environmental Crisis (New York: Pilgrim Press, 1990) $ 10.95. Deep cultural-religious roots of the environmental crisis International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 are explored. Spirit-Nature dualism is Earth-destructive. Mechanism, materialism, individualism, and patriarchialism reinforce the pattern. Bowman wants to recover the Christian creation-centered tradition in ways that connect with Trinitarian belief International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 and follow Jesus in being "receptive, prophetic, compassion­ate." (v1,#4)


Bowman, M. B., "Legal Perspectives on Dam Removal," Bioscience 52(no.8, 2002): 739-42. (v.13,#4)


Boxer, Baruch. "US and China Talk Environment, Not Just Trade." The Christian International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Science Monitor 89 (9 July 1997): 19. (v8,#2)


Boyce, James K., Pastor Jr., Manuel, "Aid for Peace: Can International Financial Institutions Help Prevent Conflict," World Policy Journal 15(no.2, 1998), p. 42. (v.9,#4)


Boyce, Thomas E., Geller, E. Scott, "Encouraging International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 College Students to Support Pro Environment Behavior: Effects of Direct Versus Indirect Rewards," Environment and Behavior 33(no. 1, Jan. 1, 2001):107- . (v.12,#2)


Boyd, Freeman, Review of Lehman, Hugh, Rationality and Ethics in Agriculture. Journal International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 10(1997):89-92. (JAEE)


Boyd, Freeman, "Humane Slaughter of Poultry: The Case Against the Use of Electrical Stunning Devices", ^ Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7(1994):221-236. Is the use of electrical International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 stunners adequately discharging our moral obligations with respect to the humane slaughter of poultry? Thee separate lines of investigation show that we cannot give an unequivocal answer to this question. Five potentially International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 humane methods of poultry slaughter are examined. Electrical stunning is found to be an acceptable method of rendering birds unconscious before slaughter. We lack sufficient evidence to claim that it is the most International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 humane method currently available and that a proper stun is always achieved. Controversy surrounding the increased current flow and the impact of electrocution on carcass quality and operator safety will continue International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 to cause resistance to the adoption of this method of poultry slaughter. The conclusion offers four recommendations that follow from the cumulative results of these investigations. Boyd lives in Meaford, Ontario.


Boyd, Freeman International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 and Howard, Ian, Review of ^ The Intimate Commodity, by Anthony Winson, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 7(1994):237-240.


Boyd, JA, "Hip Deep: A Survey of State Instream Flow Law from the Rocky Mountains to International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 the Pacific Ocean," Natural Resources Journal 43(no.4, 2003):1151-1216. (v. 15, # 3)


Boyd, James, "What's Nature Worth? Using Indicators to Open the Black Box of Ecological Evaluation," Resources (Resources for the Future), Summer, 2004, Issue no International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20. 154, pages 18-22. The value of nature is inherently complex; rarely is there a clear-cut, "right" answer to a question like which ecosystem is the most valuable. A central problem International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 is that complex answers, including economic and ecological measures, are difficult to convey to the public. But unless they are clearly conveyed, the public is not convinced by scientists and economists. One line of solution International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 is to use "indicators." Boyd is with Resources for the Future. (v. 15, # 3)


Boyd, W; Prudham, WS; Schurman, RA, "Industrial Dynamics and the Problem of Nature," Society and Natural Resources 14(no International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20. 7, 2001):555-570. (v.13,#1)


Boydell, S. and Holzknecht, H., "Land-Caught in the Conflict Between Custom and Commercialism," Land Use Policy 20(no. 3, 2003): 203-207.


Boylan, Michael, ed., Environmental Ethics. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 2001. Sections International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 on Worldview and Applied Ethics; Land Ethic, Deep Ecology, and Social Ecology; Ecofeminism; Religion and Aesthetics; Moral Basis for Environmentalism; Anthropocentric Justifications, Biocentric Justifications; Searching the Middle (between these two); Animal Rights; Biodiversity; Sustainable International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Development. Features (a) an original interview with a prominent person who faces the practical challenges of ethical issues in the environment daily, (b) a methodology for linking theory to action, (c) an awareness International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 of gender issues, and (d) a method for students to follow to write an essay using the information presented. Boylan is philosophy at Marymount University, Arlington, VA. (v.12,#4)


Boyle, Alan, and International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Anderson, Michael R., ^ Human Rights Approaches to Environmental Protection. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996. Linkages between the environment and human rights. Advantages and disadvantages, complexities, limits of a rights-based approach International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20. The legal status of environmental rights in both international and domestic law. Boyle is at the University of Edinburgh. Anderson is with the British Institute for International and Comparative Law, London. (v.11,#3)


Boyle, David, "Wall International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Street 2," ^ The Ecologist 30(no. 9, Dec. 1, 2000):26- . The world economy today is worryingly similar to that of 1929?just before the catastrophic Wall Street Crash. Could it all happen again? (v.12,#2)


Boyle, T. C., A International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Friend of the Earth. New York: Viking, 2000. An eco-novel, portraying a future dystopia in which all the efforts of environmentalists accomplish nothing and the world succumbs to global warming International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20. At the conclusion, the lead couple, broken and old, head for the blasted mountain forest to rebuild the wrecked house in which they had once lived. They watch the woods begin International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 to come back, "the shoots of the new trees rising up out of the graveyard of the old, aspens shaking out their leaves with a sound like applause, willows thick along the streambeds International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20." (v.11,#4)


Bracke, M. B., J. H. M. Metz, A. A. Dijkhuizen, and B. M. Spruijt. "Development of a Decision Support System for Assessing Farm Animal Welfare in Relation to Husbandry Systems: Strategy International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 and Prototype." ^ Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 10(2001):321-337. Due to increasing empirical information on farm animal welfare since the 1960s, the prospects for sound decisionmaking concerning welfare have improved. This paper International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 describes a strategy to develop a decision-making aid, a decision support system, for assessment of farm animal welfare based on available scientific knowledge. Such a decision support system allows many factors to be International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 taken into account. It is to be developed according to the Evolutionary Prototyping Method, in which an initial prototype is improved in reiterative updating cycles. This initial prototype has been constructed International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20. It uses hierarchical representations to analyse scientific statements and statements describing the housing system. Welfare is assessed from what is known about the biological needs of the animals, using a welfare model in International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 the form of a tree that contains these needs as welfare components. Each state of need is assessed using welfare relevant attributes of the housing system and weighting factors. Attributes International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 are measurable properties of the housing system. Weighting factors are assigned according to heuristic rules based on the principle of weighting all components (attributes and needs) equally, unless there are strong reasons to International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 do otherwise. Preliminary tests of the prototype indicate that it may be possible to perform assessment of farm-animal welfare in an explicit way and based on empirical findings. The procedure needs International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 to be refined, but its prospects are promising. Keywords: animal welfare assessment, decision support system, pigs. The authors are aat the at the DLO-Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering Wageningen, The International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Netherlands. (JAEE)


Bracke, M. B. M., K. H. De Greef and H. Hopster, "Qualitative Stakeholder Analysis for the Development of Sustainable Monitoring Systems for Farm Animal Welfare," ^ Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 18(2005):27-56. Evaluating International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 animal welfare in the animal product market chain is a key challenge to further improve the welfare of farm animals and information on the welfare of animals must, therefore, be International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 assessed objectively, for instance, through monitoring. Interviews with Dutch stakeholder representatives were conducted to identify their perceptions about the monitoring of animal welfare. While producers tend to perceive welfare from a International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 production point of view, consumers use visual images derived from traditional farming and from the animals natural environments. Scientists perceptions of animal welfare are affected by the need to measure welfare with quantifiable parameters. Retailers International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 and governments (policy makers) have views of welfare that are derived from their relationships with producers, consumers, non governmental organizations (NGOs), and scientists. All interviewed stakeholder representatives stated that International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 animal welfare is important. Keywords animal welfare assessment   housing and management systems   monitoring   on farm   stakeholder analysis. The authors are in animal science, Wageningen University and Research Centre, Lelystad, The Netherlands. (JAEE International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20)


Bradburd, Daniel A. "Toward an Understanding of the Economics of Pastoralism: The Balance of Exchange Between Pastoralists and Nonpastoralists in Western Iran, 1815 1975." Human Ecology Forum 24 (Winter 1996): 1. (v7, #3)


Braden, J.B. and S. Proost, eds. The International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Economic Theory of Environmental Policy in a Federal System. Review by Amitrajeet A. Batabyal, Journal of Agricultural and Environmental Ethics 14(2001):96-102. (JAEE)


Braden, Kathleen. "On Saving the Wilderness: Why Christian Stewardship is Not International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Sufficient," Christian Scholars Review 28(No.2. 1998):254-269. The relationship between humanity and the earth is considered through three phases: the wild earth, the tamed earth, and the tended earth, as grounded in arguments International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 for an either biblically based dominion or a stewardship worldview. Braden suggests that stewardship alone is an insufficient ethic for preserving wilderness areas and wildlife because it calls for management of International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 that which is inherently unmanageable by humans. Instead, a loving restraint of human action based on Matthew is demanded. (v.11,#2)

Bradford, George, ^ How Deep is Deep Ecology? With an Essay Review on Woman International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20's Freedom. Ojai, CA: Times Change Press, 1989. P. ix, 84. This is an expanded version of an article originally appearing in the magazine Fifth Estate. It reviews the deep ecological philosophy of International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Arne Naess, George Sessions, and Bill Devall, and the practical program of Earth First! from the perspective of an anarchist social critique. Deep ecologists overlook the "interlocking, armored juggernaut" of "capital, technology International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20, and the state" which is the real cause of environmental problems (p. 50). "Deep ecologists err when they see the pathological operationalism of industrial civilization as a species generated problem rather than as one generated International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 by social phenomena that must be studied in their own right" (p. 10). It is true that deep ecologists must put their arguments into a broader context of social philosophy and philosophy International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 of technology; but this social criticism of deep ecology fails to understand the true structure of environmental problems: the separation of humanity from nature because of narrow anthropocentric thinking. (Katz, Bibl # 2)


Bradford International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20, George. ^ How Deep is Deep Ecology? Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 12(1990):371 74.


Bradford, George. Return of the Son of Deep Ecology. Reviewed in Environmental Ethics 12(1990):371 74.


Bradie, Michael, Thomas W. Attig, and Nicholas International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Rescher, eds., The Applied Turn in Contemporary Philosophy. Bowling Green: Applied Philosophy Program, Bowling Green State University, 1983. Pp. vii, 183. A collection of papers originally presented at a conference on Applied Philosophy. Two papers address International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 issues in environmental ethics. Sara Ebenreck, "Philosophizing in the Marketplace of Washington D.C." (pp. 158-170), describes her work as a consultant for agricultural and environmental issues; this is a "how-to" guide rather International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 than a philosophical argument. Iris Marion Young, "Justice and Hazardous Waste," examines an actual case of the establishment of a hazardous waste site in order to challenge current, Rawlsian International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20, conceptions of justice. Justice requires more than fair distribution; it requires a principle of self-determination (pp. 171-183). (Katz, Bibl # 1)


Bradie, Michael, "The Moral Status of Animals in Eighteenth-Century British Philosophy." Pages 32-51 in Maienschein, Jane International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20, and Ruse, Michael, eds., ^ Biology and the Foundations of Ethics. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1999. Bradie is in philosophy, Bowling Green State University, Ohio. (v.12,#3)


Bradley, Ben, "The Value International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 of Endangered Species," Journal of Value Inquiry 35(2001):43-58. There are three prevailing accounts of justifications for saving endangered species: (1) Robert Elliot argues that the last members of a species have greater intrinsic value. (2) Holmes Rolston International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20, III, Alastair Gunn, and Nicholas Rescher argue that species themselves have intrinsic value. (3) Robin Attfield argues that eliminating a species has negative instrumental value. But all these attempted justifications are inadequate. Philosophers International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 have failed to realize that intrinsic and instrumental value are not the only types of value at issue. If we recognize the existence of contributory value, along with Brentano's principle International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 of bonum variationis, we may be able to defend a preservationist account of endangered species. Bradley is in philosophy, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. (v.13, #3)


Bradley, Ian, "How Green was Celtic International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Christianity?" Ecotheology No 4 (Jan 1998):58-69.


Bradley, Ian, God Is Green: Ecology for Christians. New York: Doubleday Image Books, 1990. 118 pages. Paper. $ 8.00. Chapter titles: God's concern for all creation: "The earth is the Lord's and International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 the fullness thereof." The dance of creation: "The trees of the field shall clap their hands." The fall of nature: "The whole creation has been groaning in travail." The International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 cosmic Christ: "Who is this that even the winds and sea obey him?" The role of human beings: "Thou hast given him dominion over the works of thy hands." An analysis of the biblical International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 understanding of the goodness of creation and of human stewardship, suitable for use in churches. A sacred world is at the heart of Christian belief. Of all the world religions International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20, Christianity has the greatest claim to be environmentalist because it professes that God is incarnate in the very stuff of nature. With practical suggestions for greening the churches. Bradley is a minister in the International Society for Environmental Ethics - 20 Church of Scotland and a member of the Green Party. (v5,#2)


Bradley, Nina Leopold, "Aldo Leopold: On the Path Toward Unity of Knowledge"
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