Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes




Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes1


Dr. Nektaria Paleologou


ABSTRACT During the last ten years, Intercultural Education has gradually emerged in Greece as a new type of education. This Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes paper attempts to фокус on several aspects of the implementation of the Intercultural Education in the Greek context. Specifically, it highlights and addresses the following issues: 1. The multicultural situation in Greece and the discourse on Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes Intercultural Education. 2. The Law 2413/96, entitled Greek Education Abroad, Intercultural Education and Other Provisions, as well as the official regulations related to the establishment and functioning of reception and tutorial classes. 3. The Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes difficulties and obstacles that are present in the current educational system, as well as teachers’ and pupils’ needs. 4. The language policies associated with the Greek educational system, as compared to the language policies Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes of England and Australia. Finally, it reflects on matters of social justice and equality of opportunities for the new student population of Greece.


^ Multiculturalism in Greece


The fall of the Berlin Wall Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes in 1989 and the subsequent collapse of communism re-opened borders closed for two decades by the Cold War. With the disintegration of the Iron Curtain, the traditional flow of peoples from Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes East to West resumed on a relatively large scale (Jacobs & Gundara, 2000). During the last twenty years, significant numbers of people with various ethnic identities have entered Greece. In the 1980s, these people were Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes mostly repatriated Greeks, while during the last decade it has been primarily foreign immigrants who have migrated. Multiple terms have been used to describe ethno-cultural differences, such as Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes “migrants”, “minorities”, “repatriates”, “immigrants”, “emigrants”, “refugees” or “foreigners”. Though each of these terms has its own semantic content, their common element is that they divide people into categories based on their cultural background. Moreover, these Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes cultural differences emphasize deviance from what it is regarded as the norm.

The multicultural puzzle, which defines the structure of contemporary Greek society, is also reflected in the data that refer Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes to the number of foreign and repatriated students that attend Greek schools (Frangoudaki & Dragonas, 2000). It has become clear that Greek society has not been prepared to accept this new population of Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes children. Greece, contrary to other countries, such as England, Australia and Canada, which accepted a relatively large number of immigrants some decades ago, for the first time has had to tackle this novel Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes and irreversible situation.

The first official record of the number of repatriated and immigrant students in Greece was presented by a scientific team under the supervision of Professor Drettakis for Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes the school year 1995-96. The latest official records refer to the school year 1999-2000. These were published by the Special Secretary of Education of Expatriated Greeks and Intercultural Education. We will more closely examine these data in Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes the next section.


Repatriated and foreign students in the Greek educational system


Table 12 shows both the number of foreigners and repatriated Greek students in Greek primary (excluding Nursery schools Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes), middle and high schools for the school year 1998-1999. At this point, we would like to emphasize that there might be some variations in the data presented below due to the different sources from which they Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes were obtained3 (including independent research, the Ministry of Education and Religion, the Special Secretary of Education of Expatriated Greeks and Intercultural Education, the National Statistical Organization etc.). This is something that Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes often leads to confusion. From the school year 2001-2002 onwards, the Institute of Education of Expatriated and Intercultural Education has undertaken to collect and present all relevant data. However, it was difficult to access Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes the most recent data. Nevertheless, according to a very recent article that was published in the newspaper “Kiriakatiki Kathimerini” (27-07-03), the percentage of foreign students in schools is now approximately Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes 10%. These data stem from the Institute of Education of Expatriated and Intercultural Education for the previous school year. This is relevant to the percentages presented in this article.


^ REPATRIATED & FOREIGN STUDENTS, AND INDIGENOUS Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes POPULATION IN PRIMARY, MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOLS, SCHOOL YEAR: 1998-99

SCHOOL YEAR

REPATRIATED

FOREIGN

^ REPATRIATED & FOREIGN

GREEKS


TOTAL NUMBER

Primary Schools

27,687

28,426

56,113

590,446

646,559

Middle School

11,976

5,761

17,737

362,372

380,109

High School (Academic stream)

1,880

609

2,489

136,933

139,422

High School Vocational stream)

2,443

955

3,398

262,393

265,791

^ TOTAL NUMBER

43,986

35,751

79,737

1,352,144

1,431,881

Source: Drettakis (2001: p 40)


^ Table 1: Data for repatriated & foreign Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes students and the indigenous Greek population,

school year 1998-99 (Source: Paleologou & Evangelou, 2003)


Table I reveals an important decrease in the number of repatriated and foreign students in secondary education (Middle and High Schools Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes). There appears to be a dramatic decrease during the transition from one school level to the next. This drop is much more extreme than among Greek students.

The data highlight that there Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes is a serious problem with school “drop-out” rates. This can partially be explained by the fact that many repatriated and foreign students work from an early age in various part-time Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes activities and professions. As a result, they often abandon their schooling at an early stage, sometimes without having completed their compulsory studies. We assume - even though there are no official statistical data - that the Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes attendance of repatriated and foreign students in Tertiary Education, compared to that of the indigenous population, would be almost negligible.



^ REPATRIATED, FOREIGN STUDENTS, MUSLIMS, ROMA AND INDIGENOUS POPULATION IN Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes PRIMARY, MIDDLE AND HIGH SCHOOLS, SCHOOL YEAR: 1999-2000

SCHOOL YEAR

REPATRIATED

FOREIGN

REPATRIATED

& FOREIGN

MUSLIMS


ROMA

GREEKS


^ TOTAL

NUMBER

Nursery School

1,530

5,882

7,412







142,559

149,971

Primary School

17,918

40,653

58,571

7,065

8,500

377,400

451,536

Middle School

8,693

13,373

22,066

1,623

1,500

136,933

162,122

High School

2,499

3,102

5,601

250

250

393,201

399,302

^ TOTAL NUMBER

30,640

63,010

93,650

8,938

10,250

1,050,093

1,162,931

^ Source: Ι.P.Ο.D.Ε. (1999-2000)

Table 2: Data for the repatriated, foreign students and the indigenous population,

school year 1999-2000 (Source: Paleologou & Evangelou, 2003)


Table 2 shows Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes an increase in the number of repatriated and foreign students compared to a year earlier. Those attending nursery school represent 5% of the total population of children attending nursery schools in our country Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes. For primary schools, this percentage is even higher: 16.4%. (for a further discussion of these statistics see: Paleologou & Evangelou, 2003). School drop out rates are especially high for Roma children after primary school.


^ SCHOOL Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes YEAR

REPATRIATED

Former Soviet Union

countries

North

Epirus

^ FOREIGN ERS

Albanians

REPATRIATED

& FOREIGNERS

1995-1996

19,559

11,691

5,658

10,634

7,083

30,193

1999-2000

17,918

11,831

4,251

40,563

8,500

58,571


^ Table 3: Foreign and Repatriated students in Primary Schools


Table 3 reveals that there was an significant increase in the number of repatriated and foreigner students from 1995- 2000. (9.7%). Albanians are by Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes far the largest group of immigrant students in the country. Their numbers increased by 400% from 1995-2000, which represents 80% of all foreign students in Greece. This sheds further light on the drop out Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes rates mentioned earlier.

In general terms, the majority of repatriated and foreign students reside in urban areas, though many also reside in rural areas where they attend small rural schools with no special educational Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes provisions.



^ SCHOOL YEAR

TOTAL NUMBER

OF CLASSES

TOTAL NUMBER

OF STUDENTS

^ RECEPTION CLASSES

500

8,537

TUTORIAL CLASSES

701

4,957



Table 4: Distribution of repatriated and foreign students in Greece in Reception Classes and Tutorial Classes (Source: Ministry of National Education Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes and Religious Affairs, Sector of Primary Education Studies)


Table 4 discusses access to reception and tutorial classes. In total, 20.5 % of foreign and repatriated students attend these classes.


^ The official discourse on Intercultural education in Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes Greece


It was not until 1996 that Greece took its first serious institutional steps towards addressing the issues relating to multicultural classrooms, through a law that we will refer to as ‘Law 2413/96’. The establishment Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes of an "Office of Intercultural Education" within the Ministry of Education, and the aforementioned law, entitled "Greek Education abroad, Intercultural Education and other provisions" represented the first official recognition by Greek authorities that diverse Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes communities had specific educational needs. The Law consists of eleven chapters, of which only one refers to the Intercultural Education in Greece. In this chapter there is a general reference to Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes the aim of Intercultural Education, its content and its organizational structure. More specifically, the legislators propose the establishment of “intercultural schools”. These are to be a new type of school to Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes be attended by mostly repatriated Greeks and foreign immigrants.

Despite legal measures to address the effects of immigration in schools, however, in practice immigrants are subject to assimilation pressures, since none of the governmental Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes measures that have been implemented encourage the maintenance of one’s ethnic identity (Paleologou & Evangelou, 2003). Additionally, Greek schools, as Mouzelis (1998) has pointed out, do not cultivate critical dialogue or Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes the exchange of ideas between different cultures and religions. This is considered to hinder the integration of foreign students into Greek society.

The main concrete attempts to address diversity needs relate to Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes the creation, in 1999, of “Tutorial Classes” or “Reception Classes”, as referred to in Table 4. “Tutorial Classes” provide a couple of hours of after school tuition for minority children. Though the amount of Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes tuition that students receive varies per school, in practice the amount of time spent in such classes (often in small groups) can vary between 3 and 10 hours per week. Students in ‘Reception Classes’ receive Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes 5 to 10 hours of instruction per group. The amount of hours will depend on how many years the student has attended school, how many years of remedial instruction s/he has followed and Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes to what extent he/she is linguistically competent Absolute beginners receive 10 hours of instruction per week. During the rest of the school day they attend mainstream classes and they are expected to Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes acquire the language through classroom immersion, which is tailored to the linguistic level of Greek students.

Further legislation, put forward by Greek Ministry of Education and Religion (G.M.E.R.) in Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes 1996, in collaboration with Greek Universities and financed by the European Union, supports three large educational programs. These relate to three specific groups of students:


Mr. Halkiotis Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes (2000, pp. 49-50), Former Special Secretary for Education of Greek Diaspora and Intercultural Education at the G.M.E.R., and one of the legislators, has recently commented that: “The G.M.E.R. attempts Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes to ‘open new roads’ through these programs”. He has also emphasized that the Ministry is committed to:


The second Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes phase of the implementation of these programs started in 2003. In practice, implementation of such programs means that Greek educators will have to work harder to confront the difficulties associated with the actual implementation process Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes. These difficulties relate mainly to a lack of language skills that frequently leads to school failure.

Research has shown that difficulties at school and the home lead to large drop out rates among Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes migrant students. (Paleologou, 2000). Though problems related to housing and unemployment effect many in Greek society, they are more profound among minority groups (Gundara, 2000). The implication of such findings is that intervention Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes also needs to take place at this level. Moreover, the academic achievement of both minority and an indigenous students is very poor in schools characterized by a high percentage of repatriated Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes Greeks and foreign immigrants (Paleologou, 2000).


^ Current provisions and obstacles in schools – teachers’ needs


Research in Greece is showing that the arrival of migrant children in Greek schools is accompanied by adjustment difficulties Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes in school, at least when they first arrive (Georgas & Papastilianou, 1993; Hatzichristou, 1995; Paleologou, 1999, 2000). In general, it has been found that children who enter a new environment or one different from their family environment Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes experience difficulties both with respect to achievement and psychosocial behavior (Achenbach & Edelbrock, 1983; Cowen & Hightower, 1986, 1989; Ladd et al., 1987, 1990, 1996). This is especially the case for children who migrate from another country (Ladd & Price, 1987; Hatzichristou Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes & Hopf, 1992, 1993; Kochenderfer & Ladd, 1996; Paleologou, 1999, 2000). It has also been found that the self-esteem of foreign students is quite low (Leondari & Kyridis, 1996). Though some of these problems can be attributed to language issues, many Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes are related to other issues, such as: (Paleologou & Evangelou, 2003).


Although recent legislation provides for the teaching of Greek as a second or foreign language to immigrant students, in practice this only occurs in specific pilot schools within Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes the framework of larger experiments in the area of Intercultural Education programs (Paleologou & Evangelou, 2003). Research has shown that teachers experience a certain amount of anxiety and feelings of ‘inadequacy’ when working Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes in tutorial or reception classes, also because there are too few bilingual textbooks that are non-racist or prejudiced in their content.

There is clearly a great need for teacher training Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes with intercultural dimensions. Such training should include teaching methodology, as well as psycho-pedagogical techniques, that help teachers work more effectively in multicultural classrooms and deal more appropriately with their immigrant students’ difficulties Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes and problems (Paleologou, 2000, 2001). Many authors have emphasized the importance of teacher training to combat racism and practice educational policies that promote social justice in schools (Zeichner, 1997, Gundara, 1994).


^ Needs for a ‘bilingual Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes intercultural model’


If we examine the bilingual policies of our country in its schools, and assess them according to the criteria put forward by Fishman (1976), we must conclude that bilingual education is basically Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes absent at the moment. We do see the implementation of limited bilingual programs in a few experimental reception and tutorial classes (for example in Menidi in Athens). In these classes, repatriated students Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes from the former Soviet Union receive instruction in their mother tongue through experimental books created by the Centre for Intercultural Education at the University of Athens. However, when they attend mainstream Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes classes they are only taught in Greek. Transitional bilingualism programs (Fishman, 1976) are not to be found at all in Greece. These are programs in which mother tongue teaching is used in the Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes first classes of primary school. Gradually, mother tongue teaching decreases and is replaced by the official language of the host country.

On the whole we can conclude that repatriated and foreign students do not Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes appear to have the same opportunities as their indigenous classmates (Paleologou & Evangelou, 2003), even if we move beyond language issues. Immigrant students, especially those who enter the Greek educational system at Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes a later age, face unequal opportunities in their studies, since their educational and cultural capital is completely ignored or considered to be inferior. Educational exclusion of immigrant students is a possible consequence, which Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes can lead to social exclusion later if not dealt with. (Paleologou & Evangelou, 2003).

As mentioned before, Intercultural Education principles offer a guiding light to address the problems we cite above. The basic Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes principles of an Intercultural approach include: awareness and respect for cultural variation, solidarity with ‘others’ and the elimination of nationalistic ways of thinking. However, institutional changes are required to translate intercultural principles into Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes classroom practice. This applies especially to the principle of multicultural awareness and the elimination of the nationalistic ways of thinking. Such principles can be taught effectively within the framework of humanistic education Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes.

In sum, the Greek educational system is facing new challenges and will have little choice but to seek solutions through adequate provisions and school practice. It is for these reasons, according to Mr Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes. Halkiotis, that the basic pillars of the Greek educational process should be (2000, p. 49):

-A non-ethnocentric consideration of various cultures.

-The recognition of the importance of other cultures by treating them Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes as equal.

-The elimination of stereotypes of any kind and respect for diversity.

-The promotion of tolerance, which constitutes a fundamental role of social cohabitation and at the same time an important moral Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes virtue.

-The reinforcement of intercultural communication.


Seven years after the implementation of the Law 2413/96, research has revealed that Intercultural Education programs are needed in schools that address the needs of Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes all students, whether they have immigrant or indigenous backgrounds. Such programs will serve to help all students develop their intercultural abilities, attitudes and attributes. These will be needed by all of us Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes to survive in the modern era of globalization. Furthermore, Intercultural Education programs will promote basic democratic values and the human rights of all (Paleologou, 2000, 2001).

The application of a Bilingual Intercultural Education “model” in Greek schools Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes, with appropriate bilingual textbook teaching methodologies, is a matter of urgent concern. Such models will be especially effective if they integrate cooperative learning into their methodology. Cooperative learning methods have Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes been shown to decrease the gap between immigrant student achievement and that of indigenous students. (Batelaan & Van Hoof, 1996) They also put human rights, equal opportunity and social justice into practice

The role Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes of ICT in modern multicultural classes should also not be ignored. The development and use of appropriate educational software that can be used to teach Greek as a second or foreign language Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes is of great importance. The educational value of ICT for modern school classes cannot be underestimated, also where its contribution to Intercultural Education is concerned.


^ The comparison of the Greek situation to England Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes and Australia


In the next section we will examine how the Greek situation compares to the one we find in England and Australia, especially pertaining to their language policies. Both countries have a longer Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes history of educational policies that have addressed the multicultural nature of classrooms (dating back to the 1960s).

We see that there are few provisions for mother tongue teaching in England, also Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes with respect to the availability of appropriate materials and venues where such teaching could take place. English has remained the basic language of teaching. Furthermore, there are few bilingual programs to be found Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes in the public education sector, apart from some minor experimental projects that lack continuity from one educational level to the next (Paleologou & Evangelou, 2003).

Australia is a country of immigrants and Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes therefore many immigrant communities have been able to develop strong organizations to communicate their educational needs. Consequently, the educational reality is one that we would define as pluralistic (Paleologou & Evangelou, 2003). In Australia, various provisions Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes help foreign students learn their mother tongue and also maintain their cultural identity. Such provisions are apparent in the Curricula, appropriate instructional materials, the variety of support services, as well as the Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes number of qualified teachers in this area. (Paleologou & Evangelou, 2003). In general terms, we can draw the following conclusions (Paleologou & Evangelou 2003, p. 224-232):


Conclusions


Now that Greece has officially adopted Intercultural Education, what does this imply for classroom practice and the attainment of educational Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes objectives? The answer is obvious given our research and that of others: until now, until this point Greece treats foreign students as monolingual. It ignores their linguistic background and it Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes teaches them with books that are intended for Greek children in Germany or the United States.

Especially in comparison to developments in England and Australia, Greek educational policies have not yet been Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes heavily influenced by the principles of Intercultural Education. Greek policies do not sufficiently address the challenges of multicultural classrooms. One of the consequences can be the exacerbation of discrimination and xenophobia Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes in schools (Paleologou & Evangelou, 2003).

In widening our scope from Greece to a larger geographical area we must be very cautious to avoid falling into the trap of euro-centrism, thereby building walls around what is Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes considered ‘European’. Such a tendency can bias the way we view non-Europeans and threaten our global identity.

We must stress the positive steps taken in recent years by the Greek Ministry Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes of Education to address the changing student body, especially since this is a new phenomenon. It is to be hoped that the few educational programs that support mother tongue Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes learning and the development of corresponding instructional material will increase considerably in the near future. It is important that bilingual programs continue after the completion of primary education. Intercultural Education constitutes the most Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes appropriate model for educating immigrant students, and this should be supported throughout the entire period of a child’s linguistic growth, thus beyond adolescence (Paleologou & Evangelou, 2003).

In conclusion, the effective implementation of Intercultural Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes Education requires first and foremost adequate and concrete educational programs. Otherwise lofty discussions will not be translated into reality. A key factor will be to successfully cultivate a school ethos Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes that supports the implementation of effective Intercultural Education practices throughout the entire school community. Greece has a long way to go, but it is on the right path.


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Markou, G. (1996) ^ Introduction in Intercultural Education, Greek and International experience, Athens.


Μοuzelis, N. (1998) Multi – Cultural Europe: Conceptualising Complexity on the Socio Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes – Cultural and Educational Levels. In: Kazamias, A., & Spillane, M., Education and the Structuring of the European Space, North-South, Centre-Periphery, Identity-Otherness, Seirios editions, Athens, pp 13-25.


Nikolaou, G. (ed) (2000) ^ Integration and Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes Education of foreign pupils in Primary School: From “homogeneity” to multiculturalism. Greek Letters (Ellinika Grammata), Athens.


Paleologou, N., & Evangelou, O. (ed) (2003) Intercultural Pedagogy. Educational, Teaching and Psychological approaches. Atrapos, Athens.


Paleologou, N. (2001) Multicultures in Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes Greece: New Challenges for the National Educational System. Post-doctoral research, Institute of Education-University of London, unpublished thesis.


Paleologou, N. (2000) ^ School adjustment difficulties of children with bi-cultural characteristics. Unpublished thesis Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes, University of Athens.


Paleologou, N. (1999) Multicultural Counselling Needs for Students with Multicultural Characteristics. European Conference of Psychology, Spetses, Greece.


Zeichner, K. (1997) ^ Educating Teachers for Cultural Diversity, Special Report, National Center for Research on Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes Teacher Learning, East Lansing.



1 I would like to express my gratitude to Mr. Halkiotis, former Special Secretary of Education for Expatriated Greeks and Intercultural Education of the Greek Ministry of Education, as Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes well as the Sector of Primary Education Studies at the Greek Ministry of Education and Religion for providing me with the statistical data relating to the representation of foreign, repatriated, Muslim Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes and Roma students in the Greek school system.


2 The statistical data provided in Table 1 stem from a table used by Drettakis (2001) in his article: Children of repatriated and foreigners go beyond Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes the 5% of the student population, Contemporary Education (Synchrony Ekpedeusi), Vol. 119, pp 39-44. These data derive from the Sector of Primary Education within the Greek Ministry of Education.

3 Numerical data are presented in the following book Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes: Paleologou, N., & Evangelou, O. (ed) (2003), Intercultural Pedagogy. Educational, Teaching and Psychological approaches, Atrapos. The data derive from the Ministry of National Education and Religious Affairs and the Special Secretary Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes of Education of Expatriated Greeks and Intercultural Education. See also: Nikolaou, G. (ed) (2000) Integration and Education of foreign students in Primary School. From “homogeneity” to multiculturalism, Greek Letters (Ellinika Grammata), tables with Intercultural Education & Practice in Greece: Needs for Bilingual Intercultural Programmes the number of foreign and repatriated students in Greek Primary Schools for the period 1995-2000, pp 73-84.


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