ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology



ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No Pre-schools Programme

Piotr Olaf Żylicz

Warsaw School of Social Psychology, Poland


The educational project Where There Are no Pre-schools (WTANP) has been designed by Comenius Foundation ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology for Child Development for young children of rural areas in Poland as solely a little fraction (15%) attend pre-school. Teachers work with a mixed-aged group of 10 to 15 children at least 9 hours ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology a week. WTANP is the first alternative form of pre-school education in Poland. It currently offers systematic educational activities in 80 localities (with more than 1100 children involved). The programme is based ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology on experiential learning with elements of educational community with kids, who co-create the rules, all are to comply with. It is foremost focused on development of self-esteem, curiosity, social skills, and task ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology perseverance; with the underlying assumption these psychological qualities would foster further comprehensive educational growth.

The evaluation study on programme’s effects on children while on the first year education at primary school was ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology conducted. The data were collected from teachers and parents. The greatest changes were observed for self-esteem. The project appeared to have also positive impact on perseverance and curiosity ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology, and to lesser degree on social skills. Moreover, WTANP kids appeared to show more internal locus of control. Additionally, in children currently attending WTANP the longer they stay on the programme the more desired changes ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology were identified. However, frequency of attendance proved to be dubious predictor of the changes. The results are discussed in the light of both the data collected in фокус groups with teachers ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology and parents and the educational requirements of Central European countries.

The education is based on experiential learning with elements of some sort of educational community with kids who co-create the rules all ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology are to comply with. The programme is foremost focused on development of self-esteem, curiosity, social skills, and task perseverance in participating kids, with the underlying assumption these psychological qualities ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology will foster further educational growth.

Keywords: evaluation of educational programme, rural areas, educational policies


ID 353 Research and Development of Evaluation in Early Childhood Education

Kaisa Kopisto and Annu Brotherus

Research Centre for Early Childhood ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology and Elementary Education, Finland


This project concentrates on research and development of evaluation strategies, methods and instruments in Finnish day-care centres. The project is carried out in collaboration between the Helsinki City ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology Social Services Department and the Research Centre for Early Childhood and Elementary Education in University of Helsinki.

The project started in autumn 2006 with a survey including all the day-care centres in ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology the city of Helsinki (N=289). At the same time piloting work with 5 selected day-care centres was launched. The duration of the project is about three years (till autumn 2008).

In the ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology poster we are presenting: 1) starting points and objectives of the project, 2) different stages of the project, 3) main findings of survey-design and 4) examples of developing work done with piloting day-care centres ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology. We are also presenting content of the evaluation training course integrated into the project.

Keywords: evaluation, early childhood education, day-care


ID 362 Training Pre-school Teachers on Peer-Peer Relationships: Effects on Children ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology’s Social Networks

Antonella Brighi

Department of Psychology, University of Bologna, Italy


Social skills, positive peer relationships and friendships are important factors for cognitive and emotional development (Vygotskyj, 1934; Dunsmore, 2004). By contrast, peer rejection and poor social competence ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology are associated with maladjustment and difficulties with school achievement (Coie & Dodge, 1998). Despite the importance of kindergarten settings for children interactions, Italian teachers are more focused on children’s personal abilities than ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology on peers' relational dynamics.

This research aims at exploring the effects of a training, proposed to teachers within a European project on “Relational Approaches in Early Education”, to improve children’s relational competencies ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology. Exercises to enhance trust, communication, and problem-solving in children’s were proposed in two Italian kindergarten settings (5 to 6-year-old-children). The effects of the training were evaluated by comparing ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology rating scales, socio-matrices, group mappings, and teachers’ interviews administered before and after the training.

In one setting, teachers completed the training and were collaborating to each other. After the training children resulted ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology more supportive to each other in their activities (rating scales), and their social networks became wider (socio-matrices) and more inclusive (group mappings).

In the other setting, teachers completed the ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology training partially and were in contrast. After the training a decreasing trend in peer-peer collaboration and teacher-children support was observed (rating scales). However, children’s social networks became wider (socio-matrices) and ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology more inclusive (group mappings). Finally, in both settings teachers could reflect on their educational styles and difficulties in managing groups (teachers’ interviews).

This research highlights that teachers’ teamwork and motivations ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology are important factors for the positive outcomes of a relational training.

Co-authors (Department of Psychology, University of Bologna): Mazzanti Chiara, Nicoletti Sandra, Gallingani Francesca, Guarini Annalisa, Sansavini Alessandra, Genta Maria Luisa

Keywords: relational ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology training, pre-school, peer relationships, mappings


ID 370 Child's Self-directed Action Process - Is It Possible in the Context of Child-care?

Heidi Maria Kyllönen

Tampere University, Finland


The National Board of Education in ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology Finland (2000) requires to develop child's self-direction, activity, learning motivation and learning to learn skills. This project focuses on investigating child's self-directed action process from the point of view of ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology spontaneous learning strategies. The aim of this paper is to describe children's possibilities to carry a self-directed action process out in the context of childcare. In this context we consider ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology the social, physical and material features that will either support or prevent child to create a self-directed action process. We found that preventing factors were the conditions like a deficiency ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology of peaceful rooms and the time schedule, which supported children to plan activity that is easily picked up. However, children usually were allowed to let their play settings in the some of ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology the rooms for the next day. As supporting factors, children had a lot of stimulating material available and the teacher's attitude towards a child's self-directed action was positive ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology, but their knowledge about its foundations are not known. In sum, because the intensive early childhood education can have long-lasting effects on cognitive and academic development we should pay more attention to the ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology mediators between these two constructs - not only to the pedagogical activities, but also to the conditions that strengthens the resources of the child him/herself.

References: National Board of Education 2000. Core Curriculum ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology for Pre-school Education in Finland 2000.

Keywords: a child's self-directed action process, pedagogy of the early childhood education


ID 377 Teachers’ Views on Implementation of Child-centred Teaching in Estonia

Aino Ugaste

Tallinn University, Department ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology of Early Childhood Education, Estonia


The educational programme Step by Step was created as a response to great changes in the society, to prepare the children for successful coping in the renewed democratic ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology society (Hansen et al 1997; Klaus 2004).

The main aim of the study was to explore how teachers evaluate and reflect their professional development in the Step by Step programme. The questions addressed by ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology the study are as follow: what kind of knowledge and experience did the teachers acquire in the pupils-centred teaching process? What kind of changes occurred in their pedagogical thinking and in ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology the perception of the teacher's role?

A semi-structured interview was used in the study in order to obtain reliable information from the teachers. The interview was constructed on a ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology topic-by-topic basis. The kindergarten and school teachers who worked according to Step by Step programme participated in the study.

The findings of the present study showed that the teachers ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology' participation in the programme changed their pedagogical thinking and understanding of themselves as a teacher and the teacher's role. For the teachers a motivation arose to work in a different way ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology and evaluate their pedagogical knowledge and skills. Teachers have started to understand the child-centred education as equal relationships between a teacher and a child. The teachers implied that pupils and ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology teachers are co-operating partners. The findings also indicated that the teachers can create a stimulating and involving learning environment for students, which supports the student’s individual development. In the future the studies ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology could concentrate on the more profound investigation of the professional development of the teachers participating in the programme.

Co-authors:

Aino Ugaste and Tiia Õun, Tallinn University, Department of Early Childhood Education

References ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology

Hansen, K., Kaufmann, A., R. & K. Walsh. (1997). Hea Alguse lasteaedade programmem. Avatud Ühiskonna Instituut. [Step by Step kindergartens programme]. Tallinn: Estonian Open Foundation.

Klaus, S. (2004) Stepping into the future: A history ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology of the Step by Step Programme. ^ The Journal of the International Step by Step Association 8, 3-14.

Keywords: Step by Step, child-centred teaching, pedagogical thinking, teachers’ role


ID 379 An Action Research on Building ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology the Whole Music Context for Young Children’s Understanding of Music

Ji-Ae Kim

Sookmyung Women's University, Republic of Korea


The purpose of this research is to build a whole music context where young ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology children would actively construct meanings of music through performing and listening, which is called musicking (Small, 1998). We use the action research, including participant observation. The action research aims at enhancing young children’s understanding of ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology musical components and its esthetics through musicking, including listening to music, playing with music and mediated materials. The series of actions are conducted through a process of plan-action ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology-reflection for 23 weeks (3 times a week) in a kindergarten music room. The first action was to prepare a music room separated from a regular classroom and then we equipped the room with ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology musical instruments, fabric, paper, and writing materials in a music room and installed speakers. Children were invited to this room for musicking. The series of actions were conducted for 23 weeks (three times a ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology week). 7 pieces of music (Carmen, In the hall of mountain, Swan, Little Star and etc.) were provided. Each music piece contains particular musical components (rhythm, pitch, harmony, dynamics, and etc.). Listening and ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology performing with materials simultaneously occurred and the researchers also provided additional materials to mediate children’s understanding of music based on observation of children’s activities (Vygotsky). While listening and performing ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology music with materials, which is a whole music context, young children came to feel the music itself and musical components through their body, and represent them through drawing, body movements, and speeches. Musicking engaged ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology young children to construct meanings of music itself, musical components, and its beauty.

^ Co-author: Shunah Chung, Sookmyung Women’s University, Republic of Korea

References

Small, C. (1998). Musicing: the meanings of performing and listening ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology. Hanover, NH: Wesleya University Press.

Vygotsky, L. (1979). Mind in society. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Keywords: whole music, action research, music education, mediated learning


ID 382 Inquiry of Young Children’s Experience ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology with Artistic Materials

Hyejin Tak

Sookmyung Women's University, Republic of Korea


The purpose of this study is to inquire meanings of young children’s lived experience with artistic materials in a kindergarten classroom. The ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology artistic materials mean personal, direct, imaginary, open-ended materials, which can be interpreted in various ways. Children can lend their feelings, intentions, and thoughts. Inspired by Reggio Emilia approach, young children’s ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology experience with artistic materials is significant in children’s learning. The materials are considered children’s language as a means of inquiry and investigation of the world. In this study, we will фокус ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology on understanding how various materials in a classroom become ‘media’ or ‘text’ in the process of children’s creative expression and activities. We use the participant observation to collect data on ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology children’s lived experiences. The various materials allow interpretive space where young children construct and reconstruct meanings of the world, which is, the process of knowledge construction. In this sense, young children’s ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology artistic experience differs from traditional art education, which focuses on accomplishing visual art products. The artistic materials become media of development of children’s higher mental function. In addition, young children’s experience with ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology artistic materials becomes ‘aesthetic.’ By aesthetic, we mean young children’s “response to the pattern which connects” (Reggio Children, 2004:138). With encountering the diverse materials, young children establish intense and empathetic relationship ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology with things. The aesthetic experience integrates children’s body, intellect, and feelings. Young children’s experience with artistic materials becomes aesthetic and a perfect educational experience.

Reference

Reggio Children (2004). Children, Art, Artist.: The ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology expressive languages of children, the artistic language of Alberto Burri. Reggio Children srl.

^ Co-Author: Shunah Chung, Sookmyung Women’s University, Republic of Korea

Keywords: artistic materials, aesthetic experience, Reggio Emilia approach


ID 392 Supporting ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology Early Learning through Assessment

Mary Daly

National Council for Curriculum and Assessment (NCCA), Ireland


In recent years in Ireland there has been increased attention given to the early years as a significant period in a child ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology’s learning and development. There is also a growing фокус on understanding the child’s strengths, interests, abilities and needs, and using these to ensure that his/her experiences as ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology a learner are more enjoyable, challenging and rewarding. Assessment has enormous potential to support and extend early learning in this way. In a consultation organised by the National Council for Curriculum ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology and Assessment (NCCA), the early childhood sector highlighted challenges and professional needs in using assessment for this purpose. This paper outlines the NCCA’s response to the sector’s needs.

As part of ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology the work on the national Framework for Early Learning, the NCCA is developing guidelines and tools to support adults in developing their assessment practice—gathering, documenting, analysing, using and sharing assessment ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology information. The Framework supports a socio-cultural understanding of assessment drawing upon Vygotsky’s educational theory and in particular his work on higher mental functioning being social in origin. It recommends a ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology dynamic approach to assessment in order to gather authentic information about the child and to use this information in a constructive and reflective manner so that the child’s experiences build on his/her ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology uniqueness as an individual. This approach requires the adult to gather information through multi-dimensional, collaborative methods and to understand assessment as an interactive and social component of teaching and learning. In this ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology way, the Framework’s guidelines and tools should help to develop assessment practice within the early childhood sector for the benefit of all children.

^ Co-authors: Sarah FitzPatrick (NCCA), Arlene Forster ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology (NCCA), Rosaleen Murphy (NCCA), Avril Sweeney (NCCA)

Keywords: assessment, authentic, practice, socio-cultural


ID 407 Overview and Analysis of School Traditions in Moscow

Ksenia Kalinina

Moscow City Psychological and Pedagogical University, Russian Federation


In his ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology work Children’s Psychology, Lev S. Vygotsky emphasized that an individual’s evolution and development are always the product of an intricate interplay between personal and environmental factors. For junior children (6-12 years) educational environment ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology is the single most important microenvironment inculcating them in social norms, customs and conventions. Research has demonstrated that different features of an educational environment have different impact on the ways ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology in which education works to promote a child’s development. School traditions are one of the integrative manifestations of a school’s educational environment. We were particularly interested in determining 1) how ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology traditions reflect various spheres of school life, and 2) how the role played by the various participants involved in an educational environment are articulated in a description of school traditions.

In eighty Moscow schools we received ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology over 700 formulations describing various school traditions. 52 percent describe curricular traditions, 36 percent - extracurricular traditions. In just 18 schools, the formulations of traditions brought several key participants in the education process, i.e. students ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology, teachers, parents, together. In the curricular traditions subgroup, such integrated formulations accounted for only 12 out of a total of 366. In the extra-curricular traditions subgroup, out of a total of 249 formulations describing school ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology traditions, merely 6 formulations mentioned several players together. It is our view that an important measure of a school’s commitment to and фокус on, promoting children’s development is the extent ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology to which a school has put in place traditions requiring joint commitment bringing together the key players in the educational process.

Keywords: educational environment, school tradition


ID 420 Teacher Training for Adult Support on ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology Children Knowledge Construction

Helena Luís and Madalena Alves

Escola Superior Educação Santarem, Portugal


Practice in early childhood education often reveals the need and importance of the adult supporting role, helping children to learn and ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology build their own knowledge.

Supervision and science education in early childhood teachers’ initial training can be a privileged arena for changing conceptions and practice. This is an area where children social, emotional ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology and cognitive development can be enhanced as well as children attitudes towards learning.

Supervision in a reflective perspective (Schön), the constructivist view on learning (Vigostky, Bruner) and experiential education (Laevers) contributed ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology to the conceptual framework of this project.

Science education emphasizes the knowledge construction process and the quality of reflective thinking in a social and communicational context (Sá, 2004). Taking children perspectives as ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology a starting point (Driver et. al., 1985), considering scientific processes as a learning methodology (Fineley, 1983, Harlen, 1988, Woolnough, 1996) and learning how to learn (Valente, 1997, Sá, 2004) are important aspects of children learning.

For ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology this presentation we consider part of the data of this research project on teacher initial training. We interviewed and observed six early childhood teacher-students with the purpose of identifying in their initial training ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology pedagogical conceptions and practices that

- promote (or not) children knowledge construction

- consider (or not) children learning processes in curriculum building

- consider (or not) the teacher role in extending learning

We present some results based on content ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology analysis of the semi-structured interviews to teacher-students and practice observations.

References

Bruner,J. (1990). ^ Actos de significado. Para uma psicologia cultural. Lisboa: Ed. 70.

Driver, R., Guesne, E.; Tiberghien, A. (1985). Children ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology’s ideas in science. Glasgow: Open University Press.

Finely, F. N. (1983). Science proceses. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 20(1), 47- 54.

Harlen, W. (Ed.) (1988). Primary Science. Taking the plunge. London: Heineman.

Laevers, F. (1994). The ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology innovative Project Experiential education and the definition of quality. In Laevers, f. (Ed.) ^ Defining and assessing quality in early childhood education. Studia Pedagogica, 16 . Leuven: Leuven University Press.

Sá , J. ( 2004) Crianças aprendem a ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology pensar Ciências. Porto: Porto Ed.

Schön, D. (1983). The reflective practioner. New York: Basic Books.

Valente, M.O. (1997). Projecto Dianoia: Learning to think. In Hamers and MTh. Overtoon (Eds), ^ Teaching ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology thinking in Europe. Utrecht: The Netherlands, Saders

Vygotsky, l.S. 81987). Pensamento e Linguagem. São Paulo: Martins Fontes Ed.

Woolnough, B.E. (1989) Towards a holistic view of processes in science educatio. In J ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology. Wellington (ed.) Skills and Processes in Science Education, 115-134. London: Routledge.

Keywords: teacher training, science education, children learning


ID 428 Playschool Education in Reykjavik: Examples of Developmental Projects I

Hildur Skarphéðinsdóttir and Jóhanna Einarsdottir

Reykjavík City ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology Department of Education, Iceland


Icelandic playschools are governed according to a 1994 law, which states that playschool is the first level of the educational system and is intended for all children ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology from the age of 18 months to 6 years. The provision determining playschool as the first educational level was considered highly significant at the time of the implementation, with Iceland being the first Nordic country to ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology do so. Strong demands are мейд upon playschool to be educational institutions, in addition to caregiving and service. Each year the city gives grants for research and developmental projects to be conducted in ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology the playschools.

This poster presents overview of the Icelandic playschool system with emphasis on the services offered by the City of Reykjavik. In addition an example of one developmental project will be ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology presented. The aim of that project was to find ways to listen to children’s perspectives on their playschool education. Diverse methods were tried out during a period of ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology two years, such as different types of interviews with the children, photographs, drawings, questionnaires, observations and interviews with parents. The results reviled that different methods are necessary to suit different children.

Keywords: Icelandic playschools ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology, first educational level, developmental project


ID 429 Playschool Education in Reykjavik: Examples of Developmental Projects II

Hildur Skarphéðinsdóttir

Reykjavík City Department of Education, Iceland


Icelandic playschools are the first level of the educational ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology system and is intended for all children from the age of 18 months to 6 years. Most playschools are run by the municipalities. The city of Reykjavik runs 80 playschools. The city covers approximately 80% of the ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology cost of a child’s stay in playschool and parents pay 20%. More than 90% of children aged 3-5 attend playschool in the City of Reykjavik and 30% of children under two years old ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology. Each year the city gives grants for research and developmental projects to be conducted in the playschools.

This poster presents examples of two of those developmental projects. The first one describes a project with ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology the youngest children (1-3 years) where heuristic play and treasure baskets were used to enrich the children’s play (Goldschmied & Jackson, 1994). The results show many positive outcomes both according to the playschool teachers ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology and parents. In the second project physical activities were presented and implemented in one playschool. The results reviled that the children viewed the experiments as play and according to the parents enjoyed ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology the activities immensely. The activities also affected the way the children paid attention to certain phenomena.

Keywords: Icelandic playschools, developmental projects, heuristic play, physical activities


^ ID 442 Tsunesaburo Makiguchi and Lev Vygotsky: Considering Contemporaries ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology in Light of Current Childhood Education

Jason Goulah

DePaul University and Concordia Language Villages, United States


In this session, I present findings from a comparative analysis of Vygotsky’s theories with those of ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology his Japanese contemporary Tsunesaburo Makiguchi (1871-1944), and discuss the implications of a convergence of their thoughts on current early and later childhood learning and instruction. Specifically, I examine Makiguchi’s geography of human ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology life with Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory (environment in development), Makiguchi’s concept of value/truth with Vygotsky’s concept of signs/tools (assignment of value), and Makiguchi’s Buddhist-influenced philosophy of student potential with ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development (potential development). Analysis suggests that 1.) Makiguchi’s theories anticipated, strengthen, expand, and/or explain Vygotsky’s and 2.) teachers and educators must consider and curricularly incorporate ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology the natural/physical environment in addition to—and conceptually at a level of informing—the sociocultural environment as a major influence in childhood learning and development. Analysis further suggests that 3.) the natural/physical ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology environment and sociocultural environment inform a child’s subjective valuation (value/signs) of objective reality (truth/tools), which thereby facilitates his/her fuller development. That is, a convergence of Makiguchi’s ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology and Vygotsky’s theories suggests that early and later childhood teachers must also target and incorporate students’ subjectivity—in addition to objectivity, which is well established and tested in current ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology early and later childhood education—to cultivate full potential vis-à-vis children’s learning and development. The implications of these findings extend first to a reassessment of current pedagogy in light of ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology Vygotsky’s and Makiguchi’s ideas about childhood learning and development, and second to cultural views of the importance placed on subjectivity and objectivity in childhood learning and development.

Keywords: environment, potential ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology, sign/value, theory


ID 443 Taking Well-being and Involvement as Guides to Improve Quality: The Sics and the POMS as Empowering Instruments

Julia Moons

Research Centre for Experiential Education, Belgium


The poster presents two instruments developed at ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology the Research Centre for Experiential Education – an educational model covering the whole of the educational and care system (from babies to teacher training). Concepts, instruments, educational materials and training modules фокус on three ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology major entrances to observe and improve quality in education: the process (with the variables ‘well-being’ and ‘involvement’), the context (the 10 action points, the experiential adult style) and the output (deel ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology-level-learning, a holistic approach in the assessment of development, emotional health, social competence, self-management and entrepreneurship…).

This poster will present two instruments designed to help practitioners to take initiatives that enhance well ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology-being and involvement of children: (1) the ‘SiCs’ or newly developed Self-Evaluation Instrument for Care Settings (babies and toddlers) and (2) the Process Oriented Child Monitoring System. To illustrate a ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology series of activities designed to support interventions relating to the social-emotional development, the Box full of Feelings will be commented.

Keywords: quality assurance, well-being, social competence, observation


ID 450 Classroom Assistant, A Handy Resource for ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology Teachers or an Effective Support for Weaker Readers?

Colette Gray

Stranmillis University College: A College of the Queen's University of Belfast, United Kingdom


As the number of learning support assistants (also referred ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology to as classroom assistants, teaching aides, auxiliary support and paraeducators) employed in the primary sector continues to increase, questions concerning the contribution they make to raising standards of attainment remain to ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology be answered. This paper reports evidence from a small scale study undertaken to evaluate the impact learning support assistants have on the reading attainment of young children taught in schools using a whole class ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology systematic phonics approach.

Methods: A matched sample test/retest approach was employed to examine differences in the reading performance of pupils who did and did not receive additional reading support.

Findings ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology: Whilst overall, pupils exposed to the whole class systematic phonics approach showed a significant improvement in reading performance, no added value was noted for pupils receiving learning support assistance. On the ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology contrary, the results suggest that learning support may have a detrimental impact on lower ability readers. Contradictions between the empirical findings and the views of teachers are discussed here.

Keywords: classroom ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology assistant, reading, attainment


ID 467 Drawings of Emotionally Characterised Figures by Orphanage and the Children Who Live with Their Families

Oya Ramazan

Marmara University, Ataturk Education Faculty, Early Childhood Education Department, Turkey


Drawings are an important source of clearly explaining ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology a child’s thoughts and feelings and are a means of reflecting oneself. Drawings, which are created with a child’s own initiative, when analyzed properly, reveal their inner ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology world and reveal details about themselves and their development. The way, in which the paper is used composition, the use of colour is all important for the observer. Because the child, while drawing ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology, feels as though he/she is in a free “play” environment and all actions are natural. This natural surrounding allows the observer to witness the child’s true feelings. Previous research ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology has shown that children systematically alter the size and color of their drawings in response to the emotional character of the figures, which they draw. This research was designed to investigate whether children receiving a ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology different kind of family background also use scaling and colour differentially for depicting figures emotional significance. 60 children, 30 orphans and 30 children who live with their families. All the children completed three drawings ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology of differentially characterized human figures: a neutral, a happy and a sad figure. All children completed one test session in which they were asked to draw three men. 10 block crayons (red, orange, yellow ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology, green, blue, purple, pink, white, brown and black) and A4 paper were used by children in both groups. Drawing height and width were measured in centimeters from the furthest ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology vertical and horizontal points. Surface area was measured using centimeter grid squares. However there were differences between the two different family structure groups in relation to the colours and size used for the negatively characterized ID 348 The Evaluation of Where There are No - Vygotsky and His Non-Classical Psychology figures.

^ Co-authors: Rengin Zembat, Oya Ramazan, Gülden Uyanık Balat, Gülçin Güven, Marmara University, Early Childhood Education Department, Istanbul - Turkey

Keywords: children, orphanage, drawing, figure

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