Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2


^ Futurism Good

Future-oriented politics are key to prevent extinction from technology. Even if technological power is the cause we should explicitly plan and expose possibilities for human extinction.

Jonas ’96 (Hans, Former Alvin Johnson Prof Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2. Phil. – New School for Social Research and Former Eric Voegelin Visiting Prof. – U. Munich, “Morality and Mortality: A Search for the Good After Auschwitz”, p. 108-110)

But to return to our Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 subject: ^ Modern megatechnology contains both of the threats we have named—that of physical annihilation and that of existential impoverishment: the former by means of its unquestionably negative potential for catastrophe (such as Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 atomic war), the latter by means of its positive potential for manipulation. Examples of this manipulation, which can lead to our ethical powerlessness, are the automation of all work, psychological and biological Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 behavior control, various forms of totalitarianism, and—probably most dangerous of all—the genetic reshaping of our nature. Finally, as far as environmental destruction is concerned—i.e., not a Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 sudden nuclear apocalypse but a gradual one by means of a completely peaceful technology in the service of humanity— the physical threat itself becomes an existential one if the end result is global misery Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 that allows only for an imperative of naked survival devoid of all feeling of ethical responsibility. With this, we return to the other desideratum for the grounding of an ethics for Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 the future in a technological age: the factual knowledge afforded by "futurology." We said earlier that this knowledge must awaken the right feelings in us in order to motivate us to act with responsibility Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2. A few words are appropriate here about this emotional side of a vision of the future called for by ethics. If we first think, as we cannot help but do Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2, of the fate man has imposed on the planet, a fate staring at us out of the future, then we are right to feel a mixture of fear and guilt: fear because what Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 we see ahead is something terrible; guilt because we are conscious of our own causal role in bringing it about. But can something frightful, which will not affect us but those Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 who come much later, frighten us? Even watching a tragedy on the stage can do this, as we know. This analogy adds to our "fear" and anticipatory "pity" for later generations damned in Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 advance, yet we do not have the consolation afforded by a stage drama that this is mere fiction; the reality of futurology's warning denies us that. Above all, however, its accusation that Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 future generations are our victims makes the selfish distancing of our feelings, which something remote otherwise permits, morally impossible for us. Our horror at what the future holds cries out Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 to us: "That must not be! We must not permit that! We must not bring that about!" An unselfish fear of what will eventuate long after us, anticipatory remorse on its account, and shame Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 on our own account overcome us as sheer reflexes triggered by decency and by solidarity with our species. Here no metaphysical sanction is even necessary, yet it is anticipated in these reflexes Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 and finds in those spontaneous feelings a natural ally for its demands. For this very reason the dismal conclusions of scientific futurology ought to be widely disseminated. In the end, then Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2, it is the "ontological imperative," discussed earlier, of man's "ought-to-be," whether clearly recognized or dimly perceived, which absolutely forbids us to have the contemptible attitude of "after us the deluge Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2." Given the validity of this imperative (which many surely can agree upon without any philosophical substantiation), the responsibility we bear because of our power becomes a compelling law. The role of Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 power in this entire context is complicated and in part paradoxical. On the one хэнд, it is the cause of the catastrophe we fear; on the other, the sole means of its possible Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 prevention. This prophylaxis demands massive application of the same knowledge which is the source of our fateful power. By struggling against the effects of this power, we are strengthening its Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 roots. Fear of our power has taken the place of the natural euphoria that once accompanied its possession, its enjoyment, and above all its self-engendered growth. It is no longer nature Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2, as formerly, but our power over it which now fills us with fear— for the sake of nature and for our own sakes. Our power has become our master instead of Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 our servant. We must now gain control over it. We have not yet done so, even though our power is entirely the result of our knowledge and our will. Knowledge, will, and power Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 are collective, and therefore control of them must also be collective: it can come only from forces within the public sector. In other words, it must be political, and that requires Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 in the long run a broad, grass-roots consensus.

^
***REPRESENTATIONS
2AC AT: Reps First

Changing representational practices hinders understanding of policy by overlooking questions of agency and material structures

Tuathail, 96 (Gearoid, Department of Georgraphy at Virginia Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 Polytechnic Institute, Political Geography, 15(6-7), p. 664, science direct)

While theoretical debates at academic conferences are important to academics, the discourse and concerns of foreign-policy decision- makers are quite different, so different that Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 they constitute a distinctive problem- solving, theory-averse, policy-making subculture. There is a danger that academics assume that the discourses they engage are more significant in the practice of foreign policy Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 and the exercise of power than they really are. This is not, however, to minimize the obvious importance of academia as a general institutional structure among many that sustain Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 certain epistemic communities in particular states. In general, I do not disagree with Dalby’s fourth point about politics and discourse except to note that his statement-‘Precisely because reality could be represented in Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 particular ways political decisions could be taken, troops and material moved and war fought’-evades the important question of agency that I noted in my review essay. The assumption that it is representations Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 that make action possible is inadequate by itself. Political, military and economic structures, institutions, discursive networks and leadership are all crucial in explaining social action and should be theorized Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 together with representational practices. Both here and earlier, Dalby’s reasoning inclines towards a form of idealism. In response to Dalby’s fifth point (with its three subpoints), it is worth noting Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2, first, that his book is about the CPD, not the Reagan administration. He analyzes certain CPD discourses, root the geographical reasoning practices of the Reagan administration nor its public-policy reasoning on Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 national security. Dalby’s book is narrowly textual; the general contextuality of the Reagan administration is not dealt with. Second, let me simply note that I find that the distinction between critical theorists Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 and post- structuralists is a little too rigidly and heroically drawn by Dalby and others. Third, Dalby’s interpretation of the reconceptualization of national security in Moscow as heavily influenced by dissident peace Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 researchers in Europe is highly idealist, an interpretation that ignores the structural and ideological crises facing the Soviet elite at that time. Gorbachev’s reforms and his new security discourse were Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 also strongly self- interested, an ultimately futile attempt to save the Communist Party and a discredited regime of power from disintegration. The issues raised by Simon Dalby in his comment are important ones Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 for all those interested in the practice of critical geopolitics. While I agree with Dalby that questions of discourse are extremely important ones for political geographers to engage, there is Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 a danger of fetishizing this concern with discourse so that we neglect the institutional and the sociological, the materialist and the cultural, the political and the geographical contexts within which particular discursive strategies Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 become significant. Critical geopolitics, in other words, should not be a prisoner of the sweeping ahistorical cant that sometimes accompanies ‘poststructuralism nor convenient reading strategies like the identity politics narrative; it Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 needs to always be open to the patterned mess that is human history.


^ Postmodernists фокус too much on the representations of war—they will inevitably reify the dominant discourse by ignoring the realities Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 of the effects of war

Krishna, ’93 – Prof Poli Sci @ U of Hawaii (Summer, Sankaran, Alternatives, “The Importance of Being Ironic: A Postcolonial View on Critical International Relations Theory”, pg. 398-399)

Yet overemphasizing the new forms of Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 representations of the war in the media can become politically problematic. First, a фокус on the newness of "cyberwar" detracts attention from the fact that in many ways the Gulf Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 War was very much in the mold of previous conflicts. Far from indicating any shift from the material to the perceptual, this conflict was about territory, oil, and reasserting US hegemony. Second, one ought Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 not to confuse the actual nature of the Gulf War with the Pentagon's close orchestration of its media coverage. In this regard, quotes such as the following leave Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 this reviewer with a sense of disquiet: The consequence ... is that in modern warfare, as the aim of battle shifts from territorial, economic, and material gains to immaterial, perceptual fields the spectacle of war is Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 displaced by the war of spectacle. (AD: 191) For several reasons (technological, political, and theoretical), the warrior has ceased to hold any kind of possibility. Instances where the warrior seems to Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 be present—Panama, Liberia, Grenada, Afghanistan, even the Persian Gulf—quickly present themselves as failures, spectacles, or exercises in nostalgia. (KN: 24) Contrasted with this supposed dematerialization of war, territory, and the warrior, and a Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 supposedly new era of cyberwars of sign systems, a few enduring realities seem to need reiteration: The war in Iraq was over one of those stubborn geopolitical facts of Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 the present era—oil. It was preceded by a Hannibal-esque build-up lasting more than six months (in contrast to all this talk about speed). The overwhelming percentage of the bombs used in Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 Iraq were not "smart" bombs; in fact nearly 93 percent of the 88,500 tons of bombs used in that war were not precision-guided but "dumb" bombs. US bombs are estimated to Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 have "missed" their targets about 70 percent of the time (needless to add, a "missed target" probably means higher civilian casualties). Far from being a "clean" war (as General Powell and others suggested Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 during the conflict), the weapons systems used were deliberately designed to increase human casualties and suffering. Thus, the Multiple-Launch Rocket System; the Army Tactical Missile System; the "Adam" bombs designed to "spin out Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 tiny darts with razor edges; phosphorous howitzer shells that spew fragments which penetrate enemy bodies and produce lesions"; fuel-air bombs, which "burn oxygen over a surface of over 1 or 2 square Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 kilometers, destroying all human life through asphyxiation or through implosion of the lungs, leaving no chance for survival" and replicating tactical nuclear weapons in their destructiveness—all these and more were used Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 on the traffic jam on the road connecting Kuwait to Iraq, where thousands of soldiers and civilians (including migrant laborers) were trapped and became a turkey-shoot for US "technology."29 By emphasizing the technology Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 and speed in the Gulf War, endlessly analyzing the representation of the war itself, without a simultaneous exposition of the "ground realities," postmodernist analyses wind up, unwittingly, echoing the Pentagon and the Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 White House in their claims that this was a "clean" war with smart bombs that take out only defense installations with minimal "collateral damage." One needs to reflesh the Gulf Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 War dead through our postmortems instead of merely echoing, with Virilio and others, the "disappearance" of territory or the modern warrior with the new technologies; or the intertext connecting the war Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 and television; or the displacement of the spectacle of war by the war of spectacle.30 Second, the emphasis on the speed with which the annihilation proceeded once the war began tends to obfuscate the Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 long build-up to the conflict and US complicity in Iraqi foreign and defense policy in prior times. Third, as the details provided above show, if there was anything to highlight Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 about the war, it was not so much its manner of representation as the incredible levels of annihilation that have been perfected. To summarize: I am not suggesting that postmodernist analysts Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 of the war are in agreement with the Pentagon's claims regarding a "clean" war; I am suggesting that their preoccupation with representation, sign systems, and with the signifier over the signified Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2, leaves one with little sense of the annihilation visited upon the people and land of Iraq. And, as the Vietnam War proved and Schwarzkopf well realized, without that physicalistic sense of violence, war Futurism Good - Aff k final- wave 2 can be more effectively sold to a jingoistic public.

  • oldrussian.ru/the-vomit-arsonist-wretch-cd-cipher-productions-force-of-nature-po-box-40.html
  • oldrussian.ru/preparacin-para-el-examen-dele-30.html
  • oldrussian.ru/maloinvazivnaya-hirurgiya-molochnoj-zhelezi-u-zhenshin-detorodnogo-vozrasta.html
  • oldrussian.ru/mzhnarodno-pravov-akti-ta-vnutrshn-zakonodavstvo-rozdl-principi-teritoralno-clsnost-ta-neporushnost.html
  • oldrussian.ru/opasnaya-vstrecha-v-debryah-vremeni.html
  • oldrussian.ru/peace-in-the-middle-east-general.html
  • oldrussian.ru/sproshennya-poryadku-stvorennya-restrac-ta-lkvdac-subktv-pdprimnicko-dyalnost.html
  • oldrussian.ru/r-def-r-the-eighteenth-letter-of-english-alphabet-is-a-vocal-consonant-it-is-sometimes-called-a-54.html
  • oldrussian.ru/part-ii-meet-the-authors-transcendental-ideas-definitions.html
  • oldrussian.ru/podborka-anglijskih-stihov-dlya-nachalnih-klassov-4.html
  • oldrussian.ru/primary-specialization-post-graduate-diploma-in-marketing-management-pgdmm.html
  • oldrussian.ru/strengths-overview.html
  • oldrussian.ru/-propulsion-papers-from-sname-marine-technology.html
  • oldrussian.ru/nefertkau-iii-hozztartozi-s-szeretnd-hogy-tovbbra-is-bvljn-krlek-tmogasd-munkm.html
  • oldrussian.ru/marc-anthony-ive-got-you-single-2-4-family-take-me-home-single.html
  • oldrussian.ru/ocnyuvannya-viborchih-sistem-shveda-yu-r-vibori-ta-viborch-sistemi-vropejsk-standarti-ta-dosvd-dlya-utverdzhennya.html
  • oldrussian.ru/midrash-tanchuma-where-were-you-before.html
  • oldrussian.ru/rt-rev-archimandrite-robert-f-taft-s-j-5.html
  • oldrussian.ru/interface-failover-configuration-how-to-contact-us.html
  • oldrussian.ru/the-chinese-economy-today-an-overview-chapter-one.html