Essential Language Teaching Series - 12


Part Two

1 Form new groups with at least one person from groups A, B and C and exchange your information. You can then label more of our map and complete the table.

2 Discuss the possible position Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 of the camp site and mark it on your map.




This is not a particularly authentic activity in that one would not normally carry it out in real life. Nevertheless it does Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 involve skills that are useful in real life - reading for information, seeking and giving information, and transferring information.

Further justification for this procedure is that the task itself is interesting - and interesting Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 activities that incorporate reading are more likely to lead to a positive attitude to reading.

A large number of subjects may be used for jigsaw purposes: different versions of an Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 event such as a crime, descriptions of the same person in different clothes; accounts of a town at different periods in its history. Narrative or descriptive passages are generally the most Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 appropriate for jigsaw work. In each case the actual aim might be different but the principle of the exchange of information remains the common factor. Geddes and Sturtridge (1982) have several interesting examples of Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 jigsaw reading at intermediate to advanced level.


^ 7.6 Enquiry strategy


In the types of information-seeking activities described so far the teacher has told the reader what information to seek. A highly motivating Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 activity can be one where the learners themselves determine 'the information they will require. One method of achieving this is by having groups enquire into a topic as a prereading task. Suggested Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 steps in this procedure are as follows:


PRE-READING

1 The teacher selects a topic relating to the learners' pro­gramme and prepares copies of an appropriate text. Let us assume that the topic chosen Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 is 'Whales'.

2 In the classroom the teacher elicits the topic either by using visuals or by asking everyone to think of the names of some big animals in English. If the latter method is Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 used, the teacher goes round the class quick1y getting one name from each pupil. If no one mentions 'whales' the scope can be narrowed, e.g. by asking for large Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 animals that live in the sea. If on the other хэнд a pupil mentions whales immediately, then the teacher continues going round in order to involve the majority of the class. He Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 may then go back to the pupil who originally mentioned the subject.

3 Ask the pupil who mentioned the subject to give one fact about whales. Then ask the class to think Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 of one fact they know about whales. Invite a few more class members to give their fact. This procedure often produces disagreement or doubt. The next step makes use of this Essential Language Teaching Series - 12.

4 Ask the pupils to work in groups. Each group has to write two lists:


a things about whales that they are sure of

b things they don' t know or are not sure of


Decisions are taken Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 by each group as a whole. Each member makes his own copy of his group's lists. An extract from such lists might look something like Figure 34.


Figure 34







At Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 this stage new vocabulary is often generated, with pupils learning from others in the group, or using the teacher as a source.

5 The teacher asks a representative from each group to report back to Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 the c1ass. In order to get all the groups involved it is preferable to get one or two items from each group and note them on the board. This stage is optional Essential Language Teaching Series - 12; its purpose is to enable each group to see what ideas the other groups had.


WHILE-READING

6 The teacher then hands out the text and pupils check the accuracy of Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 what they were sure of, and look for the answers to what they didn't know. The text may be one specially prepared by the teacher, or a 'ready-made' text. Titles on popular Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 science for young English native speakers are often suitable. For 'Whales' Figure 35 shows a partial extract.


POST-READING

7 This could involve asking the learners to write up their lists into a coherent account. The Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 advantages of the approach outlined above are:


^ Figure35 Anon. 1978: 14




Whales the living giants


The largest living mammals

Whales and man are warm-blooded, air breathing mammals. Whales have lungs and need to come to Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 the surface of the sea to breathe air. They can be separated into two groups: the baleen whales and the toothed whales.

There are about twelve species of baleen whale Essential Language Teaching Series - 12, all feeding on small plankton organisms. The baleen whales feed by swimming through vast shoals of plankton with their mouths open.

The toothed whales feed on fish and squid which they have to Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 chase in deeper water. Some of these whales can dive to great depths.

The largest animal that has ever lived on this planet is the blue whale, which can grow Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 to 100 feet (30 meters) and about 100 tons in weight. Its sole food is krill, which are shrimp about 2.5 in (64 mm) long.




a The pre-reading group work is invariably effective in providing motivation - a reason for Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 reading. The learners then approach the text with questions of their own, not ones given to them.

b The reasons for reading correspond to those a native speaker of English might Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 have in the case of this text, namely, reading for information or interest. The points raised in the 'sure/not sure' lists are 'real' since they are points that the learners themselves Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 have raised. It is true of course that some of the learners may have no interest in whales. In that case it is up to the teacher to know his c1ass Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 and their interests. However the group preparation of lists often has the effect of generating motivation and interest.

c The approach makes use of knowledge which the learners may already have acquired in Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 their mother tongue. Thus in the 'sure' column the learners put down 'Whales are not fish' if they know this and have the language available.

d The approach to vocabulary Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 in step 4 is economical, for it proceeds from meaning to word, rather than word to meaning.

e It is a highly integrated activity, and a good example of how discussion, reading, note-taking and Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 writing can be combined through the three-phase approach.


If the group lists contain questions that are not answered in the text, then the post-reading homework can involve Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 getting the learners to find the answers; from a reference book or from a friendly biology teacher. They could even write a letter to a British university or natural history museum. Activities Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 such as this help to make a link between the c1assroom and the world outside.

Topics suitable for enquiry procedure as outlined above are generally those which have factual content - about Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 animals, towns, countries, machines, history, etc. It is of course important that the learners should have some ideas about the topic otherwise they will have little to contribute to the pre-reading stage Essential Language Teaching Series - 12. If it is possible, co-operation with other subject teachers, e.g. science, biology, geography, can be very fruitful.


^ READING AND COMP ARING OPINIONS

Here one may employ the group-enquiry strategy for general Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 issues upon which different opinions are possible such as 'Why do people wear c1othes?' / 'Does a monarchy serve a useful purpose? /, 'What is the purpose of the Olympic Games Essential Language Teaching Series - 12?' / etc. The learners list their views on these issues then compare their opinions with those of the writer. Alternatively the pre-reading phase may provide statements with which the learners agree or Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 disagree before reading and comparing with the writer. Figure 36 is a partial set of such pre-reading statements and part of the accompanying text.


Figure 36

Possible reasons for wearing clothes


Your opinion Yes/No


Writer's opinion Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 Yes/No


1 T o keep warm

2 To show one's wealth 3 T o appear attractive

4 T o be comfortable

5 To be like everyone else











Notice that the statements and text do not match c Essential Language Teaching Series - 121osely, and that the text might be unc1ear on 'some points, or even provide no answer at all. This does not matter, for we are deliberately aiming at discussion here, not only in Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 the pre-reading, but also in the post-reading, where learners compare their answers. Texts can sometimes be interpreted in more than one way, and the teacher should be wary Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 of imposing his interpretation as the 'correct' one.


7.7 Summary


Reading for information in English is one of the most important purposes that the learners may have in learning English and it is therefore essential Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 to give them practice in this. Furthermore, as a means of checking comprehension many information transfer exercises offer a solution to the language problems involved in understanding the question and producing the answer Essential Language Teaching Series - 12. These problems often 'get between' the reader and his ability to demonstrate his comprehension of a text. Information transfer tasks also tend to be more interesting for learners and the different suggestions мейд Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 in this chapter can be applied from near beginner to advanced level. Authentic information-giving texts are abundant and offer a good way of introducing supplementary authentic material to a course. The Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 teacher can move from texts with information seeking exercises, to texts where learners themselves specify the information that they will seek.


Conclusion


This conclusion will consist principally of summary 'headlines'. First, although Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 it is very tempting to use written text as a basis for the learning and teaching of language, an approach that goes no further not only neglects reading as a skill Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 but also neglects the ultimate purpose of learning a language which must surely be to use that language. Being able to read skillfully and flexibly is an important use of language Essential Language Teaching Series - 12. However, the teacher cannot treat language learners as though they were native speakers. A totally skills-oriented approach is therefore inappropriate. The teacher will need to фокус sometimes on language, and some­times Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 on reading skills, and moreover the teacher should show learners how they can help themselves in both respects. This book has tried to provide some ideas as to how that can be done.

Next Essential Language Teaching Series - 12, it is important for reading to be an integrated part of the language programme, and not to be dealt with in isolated 'reading sessions'. A good way of achieving integration Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 is by organizing the course in terms of themes or topics, whereby texts of different types (that 'grow out' of the topic can be read for different purposes, and in different Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 ways. This basis for a programme puts the emphasis on meaning, in the broad sense of the term. As far as reading is concerned, the texts and tasks in the early stages may Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 be simple, but as the learner's proficiency increases, so a greater amount of authentic text can be intro­duced, together with appropriate tasks, so that the learner is prepared for life Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 beyond the programme.

Within each topic area, attention should be given to the preparation of learners for the text. Likewise, when a text has been read, there should be an opportunity for Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 reflection upon it, or further work leading from it. Such pre- and post-reading work helps in the integration of skills, and also helps the learners to feel that they are not simply Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 'doing texts'.

While the learners are reading, however, teachers should bear in mind that it is essentially a private and individual process. Learners should be given time to read, and time to reflect Essential Language Teaching Series - 12, and the teacher should give himself time to observe them at work on the texts and tasks. This does not mean, of course, that all while reading work should take place Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 in the classroom simply so that the teacher can observe. Many of the reading tasks described in this book can be done as homework, and there is a very important Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 place for self-access extensive reading. The teacher may guide and encourage, but reading skills are achieved by the learner, through practice; the more the learner practices, the more chance there is Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 of improvement:

The increased attention given to reading in the teaching of English as a foreign language in recent years is more, one hopes, than a reaction against the excessive emphasis on speaking of Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 the Structuralist/Behaviourist approach, and more too than a byproduct of interest in text analysis. Such attention results from recognition that the ability to read a world language is a considerable advantage Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 in modem life. Being able to read

English gives a person access to an accumulated capital of information, interest and pleasure. The more effectively a person can read, the more effectively can Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 he gain access to that capital.


References


Some of the books listed here are discussed further in Practical material, page 130.


Abbs B, Ay ton A and Freebaim 1, Strategies, (London: Longman, 1975).

Abbs B, Cook V and Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 Underwood M, ^ Authentic English for Reading, (London: Oxford University Press, 1980).

Alexander L G, Practice and Progress, (London: Longman, 1967). Anonymous, Nature in Britain, (Sevenoaks: Salmon, 1974). Anonymous, The SuperBook (sic) of the Underwater World Essential Language Teaching Series - 12, (London: MacDonald Educational, 1978).

Arkell VTJ,. ^ Britain Transfonned, (Harmondsworth: Penguin Education, 1973).

Barr P, Clegg J and Wallace C, Advanced Reading Skills, (London: Longman, 1981).

Bowen B Morgan, Look Rere! Visual Aids in Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 Language Teaching,(London: Macmillan, 1982).

British Council, The, ^ Reading and Thinking in English, (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 4 volumes Concepts in Use 1980a, Exploring Functions 1979a, Discovering Discourse 1979b, Dis­course in Action 1980b.

Bromhead Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 P, Life in Modern Britain, (London: Longman, 1974). Byme D, Functional Comprehension, (London: Longman, 1977). Cochrane, J, Th~ Seashore, (London: Hamlyn, 1973).

Davies E and Whitney N, Reading Comprehension Course, (London: Heinemann Educational) 3 volumes Reasons for Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 Reading 1979, Strategies for Reading 1981, Study Skills for Reading, 1983.

Dunn O, Developing English with young learners, (London: Macmillan, 1984).

Fry E, Teaching Faster Reading: A Manual, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963a).

Fry E, Reading Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 Faster: A Drill Book, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1963b).

Geddes M and Sturtridge G, Reading Links, (London: Heinemann Educational, 1982).

Goodacre EJ, 'Methods of Teaching Reading', in Chapman LJ

a~d Czemiewska P (eds Essential Language Teaching Series - 12), ~eading: From Process to Practice,

(London: RoutIedge and Kegan Paul in association with the

Open University Press, 1978).

Goodman K S, 'Reading: A Psycholmguistic Guessing Game',

,

Journal of the Reading Specialist, VI (1976) 126-35

HartIey Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 B and Viney P, Streamline English, (Oxford: Oxford

University Press. 1978).

Hedge P, Using readers in language teaching, (London: Macmillan, 1985).

Hedge P, Using graded readers, (London: Macmillan, 1984). Jolly D, Reading Choices, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 Press, 1982).

Jordan RR, Looking for Information, (London: Longman, 1980). Kennedy C and Bolitho R, English for specific purposes, (London: Macmillan, 1984).

Mosback G and Mosback V, Practical Faster Reading, (Cambridge: Cambridge Universit),r Press, 1976).

Paine Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 M, Round the World, Longman Integrated Comprehension and Composition Series, (London: LongmaR, 1972).

Revell J, Teaching Techniques for Communicative English, (London: Macmillan, 1979).


Robinson FP, Effective Study, (New York: Harper and Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 Row, 1946).

Spencer D H, Guided Composition Exercises, (London: Longman, 1967). Street P, Colour in Animals, (Harmondsworth: Kestrel, 1977). White R V, Functional English, (Sunbury on Thames: Nelson, 1979).

White R V, 'Reading' in Johnson K and Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 Morrow K (eds), Communication in the Classroom, (London: Longman, 1981). Widdowson HG, Teaching Language as Communication, (London: Oxford University Press, 1978).


^ Practical material


An enormous number of reading comprehension books are available from the lower intermediate Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 level upwards. Many of them offer little or no variety of text type, or of task. This list contains those that do offer some variety either of text or task or Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 botl}. At the elementary s~~ges~of language learning, there are relatively few supplementary reading books, apart from titles in the lower stages of the different publishers' graded reading schemes. Case Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 Study 1 (page 28) suggests tl}at these, together with the reading work in the course book; might be sufficient for younger learners, though perhaps not for adult beginners.


Abbs B, Cook V and Underwood Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 M, Authentic English for Reading, (London: Oxford University Press, 1980). Each unit contains three texts grouped around a central theme¡ intended for adult intermediate classes.

Barr P, Clegg J and Wallace C Essential Language Teaching Series - 12, Advanced Reading Skills, (London: Longman, 1981). This is a very advanced book, calling for sophistication on the part of teachers and learners. It has some stimulating texts, and a variety of interesting exercise types.


British Council Essential Language Teaching Series - 12, The, Reading and Thinking in English, (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 4 volumes Concepts in Use, 1980a, Exploring Functions, 1979a, Discovering Discourse, 1979b, Discourse in Action, 1980b. These four volumes take the learner Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 from a basic level to an advanced level¡ the emphasis is on the organization of texts, especially of a scientific nature, and a great deal of practice in extracting information is provided.

Byme Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 D, Functional Comprehension, (London: Longman, 1977). Contains some simulated authentic texts at post-elementary level¡ suitable for young adults.

Byrne D and Holden S, Outlook, (London: Longman, 1977). Intended to practice Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 intensive reading at intermediate level¡ fairIy difficult texts with quite probing questions.

Cooper J, Think and Link, (London: Edward Arnold, 1979). Texts on a wide variety of topics, with much use of information Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 transfer exercises¡ intended for post-intermediate learners, especially those going on to study scientific subjects.

Davies E and Whitney N, Reading Comprehension Course, (London: Heinemann Educational) Reasons for Reading, 1979 Strategies for Reading, 1981 Study Skills for Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 Reading, 1983. The first book is at elementary level, the second at intermediate level, the third advanced. They are very good examples of the technique of grouping different text types Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 around a theme.

Geddes M and Sturtridge G, Reading Links, (London: Heinemann Educational, 1982). A series of jigsaw reading units at intermediate to adv¡inced level, where learners have to extract and exchange information in order Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 to solve problems.

Grellet F, Maley A and Welsing W, Quartet, (London: Oxford University Press, 1982). This is realIy a course book, rather than a collection of reading texts. However, there Essential Language Teaching Series - 12 is a variety of texts with imaginative treatment.

Johnson K, Communicate in Writing, (London: Longman, 1981). An approach to writing through reading comprehension, organized according to the functions of the texts.

Jolly D, Reading Choices Essential Language Teaching Series - 12, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982). A self-access pack consisting of 125 cards, with answer books. Authentic texts¡ intended for learners from elementary to upper intermediate levels
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