English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five


^ English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five Organization of the English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning
Four levels of English proficiency, designated level 1, level 2, level 3, and level 4, have been defined English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five for the state’s LEP population. Within each of these levels, standards have been developed for oral language (listening and speaking), reading, and writing. These standards represent what an LEP student should English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five know and be able to do upon achieving at each level.


Additionally, the English Language Proficiency Standards have been aligned with the English Standards of Learning. In many cases the English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five descriptor for the English Standards of Learning and the English Language Proficiency Standards are the same, but the indicators beneath the descriptor differ. This difference reflects the skills and abilities that the LEP student can English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five accomplish at that proficiency level. Another difference between the English Language Proficiency Standards and the English Standards of Learning is that the English Language Proficiency Standards are not grade-level English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five specific. LEP students will proceed through these levels at their own pace, depending in part on their level of proficiency in their native language, the age at which they entered school in the English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five United States, and their ability to learn another language.


Limited English proficient students enter schools with a wide range of native language and English skills and abilities that determine the English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five rate at which they will acquire proficiency in the English language. Research indicates that it may take five to seven years on the average for a student to become fully proficient in English English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five. Another critical factor in the organization of these standards is that the standards assume that the material presented at each proficiency level is controlled for both age and proficiency level in English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five English.


The standards have been numbered in sequence for each proficiency level, i.e., the standards in level 1 are numbered sequentially beginning with 1.1; the standards in level 2 are numbered sequentially beginning with 2.1; the standards English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five in level 3 are numbered sequentially beginning with 3.1; and the standards in level 4 are numbered sequentially beginning with 4.1. The chart of grade level clusters next to each standard and indicator follows English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five the format listed below.


Although the strands have been developed separately, they are integrated in classroom instruction. Proficiency in listening, speaking, reading, and English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five writing, as outlined in these standards, allows LEP students to make a successful transition to meeting the English Standards of Learning. A concerted effort should be мейд to relate required reading selections to English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five other core subjects, including mathematics, science, and history and social science.


The English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning are not intended to limit the scope of instructional programs for LEP students. School divisions English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five are encouraged to use the standards as a framework for developing programs designed to meet the needs of LEP students.
^ Limited English Proficiency Level 1
Below are general descriptions for each of English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five the skill areas for students achieving at proficiency level 1.


Oral Language (Listening/Speaking): Students at proficiency level 1 can comprehend simple statements and questions. They understand the general idea of basic messages English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five and conversations. Additionally, students at proficiency level 1 can comprehend language consisting of basic vocabulary and grammatical structures in face-to-face conversations. Students at proficiency level 1 can initiate and respond to basic English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five statements and engage in basic face-to-face conversations with more fluent speakers.


^ Oral Language

K–2

3–5

LEP 1.1 The student will demonstrate growth in the understanding and use of oral language.




a. Understand a English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five few words, phrases, and/or sentences with basic English grammatical forms.





b. Speak with a few words, phrases, and/or sentences with basic English grammatical forms.





c. Answer simple questions with one English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five- and two-word responses.





d. Ask and answer questions, using simple sentences or phrases.





e. Respond to simple directions.





f. Retell familiar stories and participate in short conversations.





g. Demonstrate comprehension of basic oral English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five presentations and instructions.





LEP 1.2 The student will develop oral communication skills.




a. Communicate basic needs and wants.





b. Use common social greetings and simple repetitive phrases.





c. Respond to English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five factual questions about texts read aloud.






Reading: Students at proficiency level 1 can understand basic material. They can understand the general message of basic reading passages that contain simple language structures and syntax English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five. Students at proficiency level 1 rely on visual cues and prior knowledge or experience with the topic. Comprehension is limited to simple language containing high-frequency vocabulary and predictable grammatical patterns. Students at proficiency level English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five 1 are beginning to use reading strategies to guess the meaning of unfamiliar words through the use of pictures, diagrams, cognates, and text context.


Reading

K–2

3–5

LEP 1.3 The student will understand how English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five print is organized and read.




a. Hold print materials in the correct position.

FTS

K.5a



b. Identify the front cover, back cover, and title page of a book.

FTS

K.5b



c. Follow words from left to English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five right and from top to bottom on a page.

FTS

K.5c



d. Use a text to match voice with print in order to associate spoken words and basic phrases with their written forms.





LEP English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five 1.4 The student will demonstrate an understanding that print and signs convey meaning.




a. Identify common signs and logos.





b. Use common social greetings and simple repetitive phrases.





c. Read and English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five explain own writings and drawings.





d. Use pictures to make predictions about text.





e. Apply background knowledge to text.





f. Use prior knowledge to interpret pictures.





g. Begin to self-correct.

X



LEP 1.5 The student English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five will read and demonstrate comprehension of fiction/nonfiction.




a. Answer factual, simple questions about what is read.

X



b. Create artwork or a written response that shows comprehension of a selection.





c English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five. Name characters and identify setting in stories.





d. Recognize beginning and end of narratives.





e. Recognize middle of narratives.

X



f. Recognize the format of poetry versus prose.

X

X


Writing: Students at proficiency level 1 can English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five express basic personal needs and compose short passages on familiar topics. Basic vocabulary and structures in simple sentences and phrases are characteristic of student writing at this level. Errors in English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five spelling and grammar are frequent and characteristic of language production at this stage.


Writing

K–2

3–5

LEP 1.6 The student will write to communicate ideas.




a. Draw or copy from a model.





b. Produce English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five several simple sentences on a topic.

X



c. Use prewriting strategies.

X



d. Use available technology.





LEP 1.7 The student will use English grammatical constructions.




a. Use basic grammatical constructions in simple sentences.

X



LEP 1.8 The English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five student will use English punctuation and spelling conventions.




a. Capitalize words at the beginning of sentences.

X



b. Use periods and question marks at the end of sentences or questions.

X



c. Use phonetic spelling.





LEP 1.9 The English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five student will print uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet.







^ Limited English Proficiency Level 2
Below are general descriptions for each of the skill areas for students achieving at proficiency English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five level 2.


Oral Language (Listening/Speaking): Proficiency level 2 students can comprehend short conversations on simple topics. They can understand frequently used verb tenses and word-order patterns in simple sentences. They demonstrate a detailed understanding English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five of short conversations and messages but only have a general understanding of longer conversations and messages. Students at proficiency level 2 can initiate and sustain a conversation, although they often speak with hesitation English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five and rely on a known vocabulary. They typically use the more common verb tense forms (present, past, and future), but make numerous errors in tense formation and proper selection of English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five verbs. They can express some details and nuances by using appropriate modifiers. They can use word order accurately in simple sentences, but make errors when using complex patterns. Extended communication is typically English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five a series of short, familiar structures. Students at proficiency level 2 often have to repeat themselves to be understood. They rely on familiar structures and utterances. They use repetition, gestures, and other nonverbal English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five cues to sustain conversation.


^ Oral Language

K–2

3–5

LEP 2.1 The student will continue to demonstrate growth in the understanding and use of oral language.




a. Use standard English inconsistently but understandably when speaking.





b. Ask English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five and respond to questions using phrases and/or simple sentences.





c. Restate and execute one-step oral directions.





d. Restate and execute multistep oral directions.

X



LEP 2.2 The student will develop oral communication skills English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five.




a. Converse on simple topics.





b. Participate in classroom discussions.





c. Recite rhymes, songs, and simple stories.





d. Prepare and deliver short oral presentations.

X



e. Retell stories and participate in short conversations.





f English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five. Identify orally the main points of simple conversations and stories that are read aloud.





g. Restate in simple form the main idea of oral presentations using subject matter content.

X




Reading English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five: Students at proficiency level 2 can understand basic narrative text and authentic materials. They can use contextual and visual cues to derive meaning from texts that contain unfamiliar words, expressions, and structures. They can comprehend English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five passages written in basic sentence patterns, but they frequently have to guess at the meanings of more complex materials. They begin to make informed guesses about meaning from context. They can English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five begin to identify the main idea and supporting details of passages.


Reading

K–2

3–5

LEP 2.3 The student will apply knowledge of how print is organized and read.




a. Read from left to right and English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five from top to bottom.

FTS

1.5a



b. Match spoken words with print.

FTS

1.5b



c. Identify letters, words, and sentences.

FTS

1.5c



LEP 2.4 The student will read, comprehend, and analyze fiction and nonfiction.




a. Answer simple English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five, factual questions about what is read.





b. Create artwork or a written response that shows comprehension of a selection.





c. Use knowledge of the story and topic to read words.





d. Name characters and tell English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five about the setting of a story.





e. Recognize the beginning and end of narratives.





f. Recognize the middle of narratives.

X

X

g. Recognize the format differences between poetry and prose.

X

X

LEP English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five 2.5 The student will begin to apply phonetic principles.




a. Use knowledge of consonants and consonant blends in words.





b. Use vowel sounds in decoding single syllable words.





c. Use basic word English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five patterns.





LEP 2.6 The student will demonstrate interpretation and analysis of literature.




a. Name characters and tell about the setting of a story.





b. Recognize the beginning, middle, and end of narratives.





c. Recognize English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five the format differences between poetry and prose.





LEP 2.7 The student will use meaning clues and language structure to expand vocabulary when reading.




a. Use pictures.





b. Use knowledge of the story and topic English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five to read words.





c. Use knowledge of sentence structure.





d. Reread and self-correct.





LEP 2.8 The student will locate information in reference materials.




a. Use a table of contents.

X



b. Use English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five pictures and charts.

X



c. Use dictionaries and indices.

X



d. Use available technology.

X



LEP 2.9 The student will use simple reference materials.




a. Use knowledge of alphabetical order by first letter.





b. Use a English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five picture dictionary.





c. Use available technology to find information.






Writing: Students at proficiency level 2 can write simple notes, make brief journal entries, and write short reports, using basic vocabulary and common language English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five structures. They can express ideas in the present, future, and past tenses. Frequent errors are characteristic of this level especially when the students try to express thoughts that require more complex language structures.


Writing

K English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five–2

3–5

LEP 2.10 The student will write to communicate ideas.




a. Write multiple sentences around a topic.





b. Use descriptive vocabulary.





c. Use prewriting and planning strategies to organize information before writing English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five.

X



d. Edit and revise writing.

X



e. Use available technology.





LEP 2.11 The student will use English punctuation and spelling conventions.




a. Use end punctuation.





b. Capitalize first words in sentences and proper nouns.





c English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five. Use apostrophe for known contractions and possessive nouns.





LEP 2.12 The student will print legibly.




a. Form letters.

FTS

1.11a



b. Space words and sentences.

FTS

1.11b





^ Limited English Proficiency Level 3
Below are general descriptions for each English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five of the skill areas for students achieving at proficiency level 3.


Oral Language (Listening/Speaking): Students at proficiency level 3 can understand standard speech delivered in most settings, given some repetition and rewording English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five. They can understand the main ideas and relevant details of extended discussions or presentations. They draw on a wide range of language forms, vocabulary, idioms, and structures. They can comprehend many English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five subtle nuances, given repetition and/or rephrasing. Students at proficiency level 3 are beginning to detect affective undertones, and they understand inferences in spoken language. They can communicate orally in most situations. They may English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five have difficulty producing complex sentence structure, using verb tenses correctly, and discussing academic topics in-depth without prior preparation. They can engage in extended conversations on a broad range of topics English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five. They have mastered basic sentence structure and verb tenses.


^ Oral Language

K–1

2

3–5

LEP 3.1 The student will demonstrate an understanding and use of oral language structure.




a. Ask and answer instructional questions, using simple English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five sentences.








b. Identify the main idea and some supporting details of oral presentations and familiar literature and identify key concepts of subject matter content.








LEP 3.2 The student will use oral communication skills.




a English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five. Participate in social conversations on familiar topics by asking and answering questions and soliciting information.








b. Retell stories.








c. Talk about experiences, using expanded vocabulary, descriptive words, and paraphrasing.








LEP 3.3 The student will present English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five and listen to brief oral reports.




a. Organize ideas appropriate for the topic and purpose.








b. Use subject-related information and vocabulary.








c. Listen to and record selected information.








d English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five. Speak understandably, although speech may contain some errors that interfere with meaning.








e. Listen to stories/information and identify key details and concepts.








f. Identify the topic and some supporting details of oral English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five presentations and familiar literature and identify key concepts of subject matter content.









Reading: Students at proficiency level 3 can comprehend the content of many texts independently. They still require support in understanding texts in English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five the academic content areas. They have a high degree of success with factual information in non-technical prose. They can read many literature selections for pleasure. They can separate English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five main ideas from supporting ones. They can begin to analyze reading passages written at a level appropriate for the general public. They can use the context of a passage and prior knowledge to English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five increase their comprehension. They can detect the overall tone and intent of text.


Reading

K–1

2

3–5

LEP 3.4 The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of familiar stories, poems, and informational text as a result of English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five classroom instruction.




a. Use pictures to make predictions about stories and informational text.








b. Retell familiar reading selections, including beginning, middle, and end.








c. Participate in discussions about the characters, setting, and events English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five.








d. Identify the characters, setting, and events in fictional selections.








e. Identify the topic or main idea.








f. Write about what is read.








LEP 3.5 The student will demonstrate an understanding English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five of basic phonetic principles.




a. Demonstrate knowledge of taught consonants and consonant blends to determine the meanings of words.








b. Demonstrate knowledge of taught short and long vowel patterns to determine the meanings English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five of words.








LEP 3.6 The student will use strategies to read a variety of narrative materials, poetry, and informational text.




a. Preview the selection by using pictures, diagrams, and titles.








b. Make predictions about English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five content.








c. Ask questions while reading.








d. Begin to reread and self-correct.








LEP 3.7 The student will expand vocabulary and concept development.




a. Use context to read unfamiliar words.








b English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five. Use knowledge of prefixes, suffixes, antonyms, and synonyms to read unfamiliar words.








LEP 3.8 The student will use information resources to research a topic.




a. Identify appropriate questions.




X



b. Collect information, using the resources of English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five the media center.




X



c. Organize information for presentation.




X




Writing: Students at proficiency level 3 can write multiparagraph compositions, journal entries, personal and business letters, and creative passages. They can present English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five their thoughts in an organized manner that is easily understood by the reader. They show good control of English word structure and of the most frequently used grammatical structures, but errors are English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five still present. They can express complex ideas and use a wide range of vocabulary, idioms, and structures, including the full range of verb tenses.


Writing

K–1

2

3–5

LEP 3.9 The student will write to communicate ideas.




a. Write English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five one to three paragraphs around a central idea.




X



b. Use descriptive details.




X



c. Use a variety of sentences.




X



LEP 3.10 The student will write stories, letters, simple explanations, and short English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five reports across all content areas.




a. Use planning strategies and organize information before writing.








b. Edit and revise writing.








c. Use available technology.








LEP 3.11 The student will write in cursive the uppercase and lowercase letters English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five of the alphabet.




X





^ Limited English Proficiency Level 4
Below are general descriptions for each of the skill areas for students achieving at proficiency level 4.


Oral Language (Listening/Speaking): Students at English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five proficiency level 4 can understand most standard speech. They can understand and identify the main ideas and relevant details of discussions or presentations on a wide range of topics, including unfamiliar ones. Proficiency level English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five 4 students are able to understand the nuances in meaning represented by variations in stress, intonation, pace, and rhythm. They can engage in most communicative situations with minimal errors. They have a high degree English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five of fluency and accuracy when speaking, although with some language forms they may make errors that do not interfere with meaning, and they lack the content area vocabulary possessed by English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five their native English-speaking peers.


^ Oral Language

K–2

3–5

LEP 4.1 The student will use effective oral communication skills in a variety of settings.




a. Vary speech according to purpose, audience, and subject matter.






b English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five. Retell stories, including character, setting, plot, summary, and analysis.






c. Summarize literary pieces, including character, setting, and plot.






d. Respond to messages by asking questions or by challenging statements.






e. Use simple figurative English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five language and idiomatic expressions.






LEP 4.2 The student will use effective nonverbal communication skills.




a. Maintain eye contact with listeners.






b. Use gestures for emphasis.






LEP 4.3 The student will make and listen English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five to planned oral presentations.




a. Prepare and deliver a presentation that follows a process of organization.






b. Use a variety of sources to prepare oral presentations.






c. Speak understandably using consistent standard English grammatical forms English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five, sounds, intonation, pitch, and modulation, although speech may contain some errors that do not interfere with meaning.






d. Use appropriate content-related information and vocabulary.






e. Listen to and English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five record information.







Reading: Proficiency level 4 students understand and obtain meaning from a wide range of texts. They use the same reading strategies as their native English-speaking peers to derive meaning from text. They English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five are approaching grade-level mastery of the language structures and vocabulary necessary for understanding academic-content, subject-area texts.


Reading

K–2

3–5

LEP 4.4 The student will read and demonstrate comprehension of fiction English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five and nonfiction.




a. Retell reading selections, including beginning, middle, and end.






b. Identify main idea of reading selections.






c. Summarize informational or narrative selections.






d. Compare and contrast characters, setting, and events English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five in fictional selections.






e. Summarize what is read.






LEP 4.5 The student will use meaning clues and language structure to read words.




a. Demonstrate knowledge of prefixes and suffixes.






b. Demonstrate knowledge of story English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five structure and sequence.






c. Demonstrate knowledge of taught contractions and singular possessives.






d. Use reference materials, including glossary, dictionary, and thesaurus.






LEP 4.6 The student will use strategies to read a variety of English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five fiction and nonfiction materials.




a. Make connections between previous knowledge and/or experiences and what is read.






b. Make and confirm predictions.






c. Ask and answer questions.






LEP 4.7 The student will use information English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five resources to research a topic.




a. Develop questions about a topic.






b. Collect information from multiple resources, using the media center.






c. Organize, evaluate, and condense information for use in a English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five presentation or writing.







Writing: Proficiency level 4 students are approaching fluency in writing in the content areas. They are able to use the language structures and content vocabulary required for each academic subject, although English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five they may make errors. They begin to use the subtleties of written language and can write for different audiences and purposes.


Writing

K–2

3–5

LEP 4.8 The student will write narratives, explanations and short English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five reports across all content areas.




a. Use a planning strategy before writing.






b. Write three to five paragraphs on the same topic.






c. Support a central idea with relevant details.






d. Use closely English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five related sentences and transitions.






e. Use voice, tone, sentence variation, and word choice.






f. Use available technology.






LEP 4.9 The student will use English mechanics and usage.




a. Use correct spelling for majority of English Language Proficiency Standards of Learning for Kindergarten through Grade Five words.






b. Use elements of style, including voice and tone.






c. Use subject-verb agreement.






d. Use adjectives correctly.






e. Use pronoun referents correctly.





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