Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study



Eleanor Cameron: Charlie and the Chocolate Factory is "one of the most
tasteless books ever written for children." It contains "all those Clock-work-
Orange qualities which are actually destroying the society children are growing Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study up
in.

Annie Merrick: "The pace for Charlie (Charlie and the Chocolate factory) is fast, even hectic; it is entirely unsubtle; its humour is fairly crude (the cruder the better for children Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, whose sense of humour is usually closer to slapstick and vulgarity than to neat or whimsical verbal humour). "118

David Rees: In Danny the Champion of the World poaching pheasants is not regarded Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study as stealing; it's great joke, indeed a virtue - because Mr Hazell, the owner of the pheasants, is snobbish, drinks too much and is rude and patronising to Danny, his father. Again Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, phony poverty is contrasted with fake riches.119 Charles Sarland: In The Twits Dahl opens with an out-and-out attack on hairy people. He makes it plain whose side he is Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study on.... An analysis of the plot developments shows the politics of the book in an even more unfavourable light Dahl chooses an element in society, holds it up to ridicule and vilification Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, and then proceeds to annihilate it.120

^ CHECK YOURSELF 2

  1. Compare folk and literary fairy tales in their poetics and morality.

  2. Characterize non-sense literature and put it to a context with Puritan literature for children Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study.

  3. What is a limerick? Who was a well-known author of limericks?

'" CULLEY, J.: Roald Dahl - "It's About Children and It's for Children"- But Is It Suitable?" Children Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study's Literature in Education. Vol.22, Nol, 1991, p. 59.

118 MERRICK, A.: op. cit, p. 29.

119 REES, D.: Dahl's Chickens: Raold Dahl. Children's Literature in Education,
Vol.19, No.3, p. 146.

120 SARLAND, Ch.: The Secret Seven Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study vs The Twits: Cultural Clash or Cosy
Combination? Signal, 42, Sept. 1983, p. 161.

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  1. Characterize Alice books by Lewis Carroll.

  2. Characterize a genre of fantasy.

  3. Choose one of animal fantasies you have read. Determine its level of humanization of Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study animal characters. Prepare its detailed interpretation.

  4. Characterize the book Peter Pan and write who is its author.

  5. What symbol can a reasonable reader find in the book Peter Pan Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study?

  6. Name at least three books by L. F. Baum.

  7. Compare Alice books with the Oz books.

  8. There are two main kinds (sub-genres) of animal stories. Define them and give examples.

  9. Characterize R. Kipling's Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Jungle Books. Name some of the Pooh stories by A. A. Milne. Are they animal stories?

  10. Characterize the saga The Lord of the Rings. Who is the author?

  11. The Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Lord of the Rings remarkably influenced C.S. Lewis in writing his famous works about Narnia. What is the name of their collection? Describe it.

  12. Which fantasy stories would you characterize as dealing with the Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study importance of friendship in human life?

  13. Which literary tales, non-sense books and fantasy stories would you use in teaching English for learners at the age of 5-9 and why? Give some exact Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study examples of their application.

  14. Which literary tales, non-sense books and fantasy stories would you use in teaching English for young learners at the age of 8-14 and why? Give some exact examples Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study of their application.

  15. Which of the fantasy books would you suggest as the best suitable for a (school) staging and why?

  16. Name at least three authors writing literature for children and Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study young people in the 19th century in America. Give short characteristics of their works.

literary terms

adventurefiction, robinsonade, sea novels, historical adventures, memoires, travel

books, horror stories, detective stories, spy fiction, adventurousfantasy, travelfantasy Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study,

satire, schematism, novel, diary

authors discussed

D. Defoe,]. D. Wyss, F. Marryat, M. Tournier,]. M. Coetzee, U. Eco,J. F.

Cooper, R. Sabatini, H. Melville, R. L. Stevenson, J. London, A. C. Doyle, M Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study.

Crichton

Adventure fiction can be defined as a genre centred on exciting and dangerous adventures of literary characters with the intention of entertaining or thrilling readers. The genre includes such popular sub Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study-genres as historical adventure (J. F. Cooper), horror story (R. L. Stevenson, A. E. Poe, A. Hitchcock, S. King), and detective story (A. E. Poe, A. C. Doyle, A. Christie).

It could Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study be claimed that the first adventure fiction was Homer's Odyssey describing Odysseus's dangerous travels while coming home to Ithaca. The literary writing centred on the adventures of seamen was inspired by great Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study geographical discoveries since the 15th century. Memories, travel reports, exciting stories of sailors and pirates became very popular. The genre of adventure fiction also involves the first English novel, the famous The Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Life and Strange Surprising Adventures of Robinson Crusoe of York, Mariner (1719).



^ Daniel Defoe (1660-1731, born as Daniel Foe and later adding the aristocratic sounding "De" to his name) was a famous pamphleteer, journalist and Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study novelist. The novel Robinson Crusoe tells the story of a man's shipwreck (based on the true story of Alexander Selkirk) on a desert island. At its most basic level, Crusoe is Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study an exciting buildungsroman and story of a


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prodigal son, as well. The story starts when Crusoe was a rebellious seventeen-year-old boy and ended when he was late sixty. Being Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study born (like Defoe) to a merchant family, Crusoe was expected to continue in his father's career. He refused his parents' wishes and went to sea to seek his fortune. After becoming Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study a colonist in Brazil, his ship was wrecked in a storm while on its way to Guinea to buy slaves. As the only survivor, he was мейд to live isolated on a deserted island Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study. While struggling with himself (he was depressive, of course) and with a hostile environment, he was keeping a diary in which he chronicled his daily life which is reminiscent of Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the history of all humankind: he started as a hunter and fisherman, continuing as a shepherd, finishing as a farmer and craftsman. Crusoe's monotonous life (enlivened by his occasional attempts to escape Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study from his island) was changed after he discovered a single footprint in the sand. He met Friday and found out that his island was a fiesta-place for cannibals. Finally, after twenty Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study eight years spent in isolation, Crusoe was taken back to England by an English ship.

While children around the world read Robinson's diary as probably the most interesting and exciting book, the Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study critics' opinions have remained split: they point out many signs of racism, British elitarism and superiority, colonialism, religious intolerance involved in the novel (parents or teachers should discuss these Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study problems with children). As James Joyce noted, Robinson Crusoe can be considered as a true symbol of British imperialism: "He is the true prototype of the British colonist... The whole Anglo-Saxon Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study spirit is in Crusoe: the manly independence, the unconscious cruelty, the persistence, the slow yet efficient intelligence, the sexual apathy, the calculating taciturnity". The book is often interpreted as an embodiment of Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Western individualistic culture.

In his narrative Defoe joins several sources and genres, including travel writing, diary keeping, theology, philosophy, economic theory, and spiritual autobiography.

Robinson Crusoe, as the Guinness Book of World Records claims, is Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the most widely read book together with the Bible. By the end of the twentieth century, "Crusoe" appeared in more than 750 editions, translations, adaptations, and imitations. There have been Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study children's versions, radio and film adaptations, plays, operas, and comic books produced.

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The number of imitations and sequels to Robinson Crusoe led to the origin of a new sub-genre of adventure fiction - robinsonade Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the term comes from German): The Swiss Family Robinson (1812) by Johann David Wyss, Frederick Marryat's Masterman Ready, Or the Wreck of the Pacific (1841), Michel Tournier's Vendredi (1972), J. M. Coetzee's Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Foe (1986), and Umberto Eco's The Island of the Day Before (1994).

Daniel Defoe as one of the most prolific authors in English literature wrote (individually or with assistants) several Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study hundreds of works. The most well-known of them were ^ Captain Singleton (1720), Moll Flanders (1722), Colonel Jacque (1722), Roxana (1724), General History of the Pyrates (1724), John Sheppard (1724), and Jonathan Wild (1725).



The motive of sea travels and dangerous Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study adventures in unknown territories created the narrative skeleton for a famous series of four novels entitled ^ Gulliver's Travels (1726) by Jonathan Swift (1667 -1745), an Irish writer and satirist. From the tetralogy Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, only the first two books have been adopted by children's readers as a travel fantasy. The series describes the experiences of Dr. Lemuel Gulliver who, mostly unwillingly, visited four strange cultures. In Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the first book, Gulliver depicted his enterprises in the land of Lilliputs - people 6 inches tall. In the second part Gulliver was set among huge giants of Brobdingnag. In the third book Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Gulliver satirized British Academia and science through his description of bizarre Laputa, Balnibardi, Luggnagg, Glubbdubdrib, and Japan. And finally, the fourth book called Houyhnhnm, brought Gulliver into an ideal society of noble and Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study intelligent horses. Although Gulliver's travels were meant as a sharp satire of British society of Swift's times, the books of Lilliputs and Giants is still popular among children all around Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the world. Children like the combination of realistic and fantastic elements in the story, breaking the rules of "normal" life, and funny situations (originally very satirical) such as the conflict over low Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study or high heels, or the conflict over beating eggs.

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Along with robinsonade, the subgenre of sea novels was formed in the 19th century. Sea novels describe the romance of sailing, adventures, intrigues, dangers on Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study seas, or battles with pirates. Some of the most famous sea novels are: Frederick Marryat's The Pirates (1836), The Children of the New Forest (1847), and Mr. Midshipman Easy (1836), James Fenimore Cooper Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study's The Pilot (1823) and The Red Rover (1827), Raphael Sabatini's Captain Blood (1922), and above all Hermann Melville's Moby Dick, 1851. Within children's literature a sea novel Treasure Island (1883) by Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study R. L. Stevenson has taken a significant place.



Robert Louis Stevenson (1850 - 1894), a Scottish essayist, poet and author of many travel books and novels, who is known especially for his adventure fiction. Since his Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study childhood Stevenson suffered from lung disease, so he spent considerable time in bed, composing stories before he could read. In an attempt to improve his health, Stevenson travelled a lot to Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study warmer countries and these travelling experiences provided much material for his writings (An Inland Voyage, 1878; Travels with a Donkey, 1879), a major contributor to the genre of horror and detective story of the late 19th century Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study. In 1885 he published A Child's Garden of Verses consisting of many poems that have become popular as songs, including the famous "My Shadow" and "The Lamplighter". World-wide fame met Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Stevenson after publishing his three novels: Treasure Island (1883), The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886), and Kidnapped (1886).

At the beginning of writing Treasure Island (1883) there was a map that Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Stevenson had drawn for entertaining his twelve-year-old stepson Lloyd Osborn. Later he added a story of lost treasure to it and published them both in a magazine for boys. The story Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study's protagonist was a boy called Jim Hawkins whose mother owned and kept an old inn near the coast in the West Country. One day Jim met an old pirate Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, Billy Bones who possessed a map showing where Captain Flint's treasure was hidden. After Bones was killed by his enemies - previous companions,

137

Jim, his mother, and Pew discovered the desperately wanted Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study map and, aware of danger, sailed together with Captain Smollett, Squire Trelawney, and Dr. Livesey to mysterious Treasure Island. On the journey Jim found out that there were pirates led by a Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study one-legged villain Long John Silver (a cook) on the ship. The "good" had to act: after several incidents the pirates were defeated and the treasure was found. During the journey back to England Jim Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study befriended Long John Silver, but after some time John escaped from the ship, steeling as much gold as he could carry.

Treasure Island has been one of the most frequently adapted Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study (for radio, movie, theatre, etc.) novels in English literature.

The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886) is centred on the subject of degeneration from civilised rationalism to primitivism (the same Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study motive can be found in O. Wilde's The Picture of Dorian Gray, 1891; and B. Stoker's Dracula,l897) as a critical reaction to Darwin's evolutionary theory. The novel Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, based on a motive of dual personality, appealed deeply to readers of the Victorian era, however, it has become an icon of popular culture, too. It has been adapted to theatre, radio and movies over Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study 30 times.

As critics claim, typical for Stevenson's fiction are catching stories, colourful location, supernatural elements, and a horror atmosphere. His stories are often set in attractive and exotic places where Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study his characters can forget the restrictions of Victorian social manners. Arguing against realism, Stevenson underlined the "nameless longings of the reader", the desire for experience.

The genre of sea novels was enriched also Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study by The Sea Wolf (1904) by Jack London (1876-1916). The book (a classical buildungsroman) tells the story of a gentleman, Mr. Humphrey Van Weyden, who was saved by the schooner Ghost after Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study a boat crash. After this, his life was suddenly and cruelly changed - previously being a literary critic (and so doing nothing) he had to work hard and fight for his survival everyday among "wild Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study" men. An important role in the book is played by Captain Larsen known as "Wolf" (a wolf as a dangerous predator was a quite frequent motive in London's writings Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study). Wolf Larsen was a pure representation of natural strength - a genial seaman and fearless fighter

138

with incredible intellect and no respect for human life or suffering. Humphrey and Wolf surprisingly ended up in Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study a kind of friendship endlessly discussing the philosophy of life which gave London an opportunity to provide readers his own interesting philosophical arguments and unique outlooks on life121.

An interesting variation of Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study a motive typical for adventurous (horror) fiction - an individual or a group of individuals trapped and endangered in an isolated place (on an island, in an old castle, etc.) - was used also by Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study one of the most famous and popular writers of detective stories Sir Arthur Conan Doyle (1859-1930) in his novel The Lost World (1912). Conan Doyle never avowed his ambition to write a popular "boy's Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study book" full of suspense and adventure. Lost World describes the adventures of four men who travelled to jungles of South America where they discovered a plateau inhabited by pre Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study-historic dinosaurs and ape-men. Conan Doyle was so enthusiastic about this book he even dressed as one of the main characters, Professor Challenger. The Lost World became so popular it became a model Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study for the first American silent movie in 1925.

The literary tradition of adventurous stories set in an isolated place inhabited by savage beasts and dangerous creatures has been developed by many Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study authors. One of them is ^ Michael Crichton (1942), a prolific American author known mainly for his sci-fi novels {The Andromeda Strain, 1969; Sphere 1987; Prey, 2002) and as a producer of several successful television dramas, e. g. Emergency Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Room (ER). He wrote the novel Congo (1980) about a scientists looking for special industrial diamonds in a forgotten city in the African jungle who met and had to fight Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study with a new race of guarding gorillas. He met world-wide success after writing the novel Jurassic Park (1990, a movie 1993) and its sequel The Lost World (1995, a movie 1997) about adventures of a group of Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study scientists and children among "restored" Jurassic dinosaur beasts.

Recommended literature

BUNBURRY, R. M. (ed.): Children's Literature: The Power of Story.

Melbourne: Deakin University, 1980. BUTLER, F.: Sharing Literature with Children. A Thematic Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Anthology.

Prospect Heights, 111.: Waveland Press, 1989. HUME, K.: Fantasy and Mimesis: Responses to Reality in Western Literature.

London: Methuen, 1984. LABOR, E.: Jack London. New York: Twayne, 1974. LABOR, E. - REESMAN, J. C.-.Jack London Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, Revised Edition. New York:

Twayne, 1994. MCGAVRAN, J. H. (ed.): Romanticism and Children's Literature in 19th

Century England. London: University of Georgia Press, 1991. MEEK, M. - WARLOW, A. - BARTON, G. (eds.): The Cool Web: The

Pattern Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study of Children's Reading. London: Bodley Head, 1977 NODELMANN, P.: Interpretation and the apparent sameness of

children's novels. Studies in Literary Imagination. 18,1985,2, pp. 5-20. RIMMON-KENAN, Sh.: Narrative Fiction. Contemporary Poetics. London,

New York: Methuen Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study. 1983. SAXBY, M. - WINCH, G.: Give Them Wings: The Experience of Children's

Literature. South Melbourne: MacMillan, 1987 SEDLAK, J.: Epické žánre v literatúre pre deti a mládež. Bratislava: SPN Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study,

^ 1981. SUTHERLAND, 2. - ARBUTHNOT, M. H.: Children and Books. New

York: Harper Collins Publishers, 1991.

Tasks

1. What, in your opinion, makes Daniel Defoe's Robinson one of the

most attractive books for children?

  1. It is widely agreed that The Gulliver's Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Travels by Jonathan Swift is a satire. Explain what satire is (as a poetological phenomenon) and what Jonathan Swift satirized in his books.

  2. What is the main difference between Defoe's Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Robinson and Swift's

Gulliver}

121 The Sea- Wolf 'became the basis for the first full-length American movie.

139


















  1. After life with the Houyhnhnms, Gulliver was always angry when people were unkind to horses. Why Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study? Can you find in this motive any deeper meaning?

  2. Literary visualisation is a very important poetical feature of Stevenson's novels. Read the following introductory paragraphs taken from his Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study novel The Treasure Island122.

^ THE OLD SEA DOG AT THE,,ADMIRAL BENBOW"

Squire Trelawney, Dr. Livesey, and the rest of these gentlemen having asked me to write down the whole particulars about Treasure Island Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, from the beginning to the end, keeping nothing back but the bearings of the island, and that only because there is still treasure not yet lifted, I take up my pen Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study in the year of grace 17-, and go back to the time when my father kept the "A dmiral Benbow " inn, and the brown old seaman, with the sabre cut, first took up his lodging Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study under our roof.

I remember him as if it were yesterday, as he cameplodding to the inn door, his sea-chest following behind him in a hand-barrow; a Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study tall, strong, heavy, nut-brown man; his tarry pigtail falling over the shoulders of his soiled blue coat; his hands ragged and scarred, with black, broken nails; and the sabre cut across one Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study cheek, a dirty, livid white. Irememberhim looking round the cow and whistling to himself as he did so, and then breaking out in that old sea-song that he sang so often afterwards:

"Fifteen Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study men on the dead man's chest -Yo-ho-ho, and a bottle of rum!"

in the high, old tottering voice that seemed to have been tuned and broken at Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the capstan bars.

122 From STEVENSON, R. L.: Treasure Island. Bristol: Paragon. Children's Classics Edition, 1993, p. 1.

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a) Find all the visual features that evoke some of the Captain's personal

characteristics

b) According to all Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study details given in the text, try to draw the Captain Billy
Bones (even if you are not talented!)

6. Explain the notion of visualisation and its position in children's and juvenile literature.



literary terms

historical Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study fiction, historical novel, historical adventurous story, historical romance authors disscussed

H. Walpole, W. Scott, J. F. Cooper, R. L. Stevenson, L. C. Douglas, V. Tripp, E.-L. Wuorio, E. F. Howard, T Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study.C. Boyle, E. Coleman

Various people have various interests. While many teenagers like reading sci-fi, high fantasy, detective stories, or horrors, a remarkable group of young readers prefer looking back Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study to past times. They read historical fiction.

Historical fiction as a genre can be recognized mainly by its setting in historical times or, more generally, by a setting in a time which predates the Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study time of the first publication. Along with this, it is characterized by historical characters who are involved in historical events. The genre (mostly represented by historical novels) became extremely popular in Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the 19th century thanks to Romantic possession by national histories.

Along its artistic development, numerous literary techniques of depicting history have been developed: some historical fictions may be focused on real historical characters Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study or events and they are based on writers' serious research; some historical fictions are centred on fictional characters and plots (usually myths and legends) that are seen in historical circumstances. Moreover, in some Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study historical novels historical elements (characters, events) are in фокус; in others historical circumstances simply create a background for conflicts that are eternal




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(love, the struggle between good and evil, etc). Several subgenres have Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study been developed: adventurous historical novels, historical romances, historical biographies, historical social novels, etc. Historical fiction can have various aesthetic and social functions: it can serve as an allegory, parody or satire to Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study interpret contemporary problems; it can help to encourage teenagers' interest in the national or general history, or it can arouse patriotism (or, in a worse case, nationalism).

Though the Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study genre was originated in the 19th century, there were several predecessors, one of them being a gothic novel The Castle of Otranto (1765) by Horace Walpole.



A famous Scottish novelist ^ Walter Scott (1771-1832) is Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study considered to be the father of the genre. He passionately collected old Scottish myths, ballads, legends and chronicles from his very young hood. In 1814 his first historical novel Waverley was published and brought him immense Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study popularity. It was set in Scottish history depicting a tale of the last Jacobite rebellion in the United Kingdom in 1745, which was aimed to restore a Scottish family to the Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study British throne.

Scott later wrote more than 25 novels, including the famous Rob Roy (1818) and Ivanhoe (1819). Rob Roy is the story of a Scottish Robin Hood, highlander Robert Roy MacGregor. The most famous of Scott Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study's novels, Ivanhoe (1819) is a tale set in the age of Richard the Lion-Hearted. Its protagonist, Wilfred of Ivanhoe, was a scion of one of the remaining Saxon Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study noble families in England of the 12th century. As one of King Richard's companions in the crusades he was drawn into the conflict between the Lion Heart and his brother John, as well Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study as into a conflict between Norman and Saxon nobility. Among numerous historical characters, Robin Hood called Locksley, appears as well.

Through his works, Scott established a model of historical novel that Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study endured for more than a hundred years of literary tradition: his plots are set in ages full of changes, struggles and turn-about. His heroes were not historically real (historically documented), nor had they Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study any special qualities or special position in society. Important personalities

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(King Richard) were usually of secondary importance in a story. The plots were typically built upon strong and emotionally exponed (life Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study or death) situations, intrigues, frequent motive of surprise and masking. Love was always important and an inseparable part of the stories. Men and women were usually schematically characterized: female protagonists were beautiful Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study and tender, male protagonists were handsome and psychically strong.

The first American popular novelist ^ James Fenimore Cooper (1789 - 1851) started as an author of essays and travel books. He became popular after publishing his Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study novels on Natty Bumppo, also called Leatherstocking or Hawkeye, representing an archetype of brave American Pioneers, and his Indian companion Chingachgook. Five novels were later grouped and entitled Leather-Stocking Tales (1823-1841): The Pioneers Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study (1823), The Last of the Mohicans (1826), The Prairie (1827), The Pathfinder (1840), and The Deerslayer (1841). The novels depicted events in the colonisation of Northern America in the 18th century, as well as the tragedy Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study of American Indians.

The second of the novels, The Last of the Mohicans has remained the most popular novel among them. The plot is set in 1757, during the Seven Years' War between Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the French and the British, and chronicles the massacre in Fort William Henry. A group of English civilians, Bumppo, and his friends Chingachgook and Uncas, being betrayed by their Indian guide Magua, had to Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study fight for their survival. At the end, Bumppo killed Magua revenging the death of Uncas and Cora.

J. F. Cooper was a prolific writer, publishing 32 novels, 12 works of non-fiction, a play Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study and numerous pamphlets and articles.

The genre of children's satirical historical fiction is represented also by George Macdonald Fraser's ^ Thomas Hughes' (1822-1896) semi-autobiographical series of novels on Tom Brown. The Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study first of them was published as Tom Brown's School Days in 1857. The story is based on controversies between its protagonist Tom Brown and Harry Paget Flashman, a notorious school bully Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study. Though Flashman constantly betrayed his friends, runs from danger, or cowers in fear, he arrives at the end of each book with medals, praise from the mighty, and the love

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of one Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study or more beautiful and enthusiastic women. At the end of the series, Flashman became one of the most notable and honoured figures of the era.

A Scottish novelist ^ Robert Louis Stevenson (1850 - 1894), already mentioned as Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study being famous for his adventurous stories, relieved in a genre of historical novel as well, by his Kidnapped (1886). The novel brought "Memoirs of the Adventures of David Belfour in the year Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study 1751," into the background of the Jacobite difficult situation between England and Scotland. Its protagonist, David Belfour, was kidnapped, involved in murder and after a shipwreck lived on a desert island. The novel Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study continued in the tradition of the glorification of Highland culture.

The genre of historical fiction was successfully developed in the 20th century as well. Let's name some of the Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study most recognizable and popular. In 1942 a novel entitled The Robe by Lloyd C. Douglas was published. Its events are set in ancient Rome (under the reign of Tiberius, the Emperor) after the Crusifixion of Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Jesus. Valerie Tripp's popular girl historical novel Felicity Learns a Lesson (1951) describes the story of nine-year-old Felicity who, shortly before the Revolutionary War, was trying to save her friendship Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study with an English girl Elizabeth. A highly touching and human historical fiction is represented by Eva-Lis Wuorio's novel To Fight in Silence (1973) that deals with holocaust mutiny in World War Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study II. On the contrary, a more fanciful face of life is uncovered in the novel Aunt Flossie's Hats (and Crab Cakes Later) by Elizabeth F. Howard, published in 1991. Within a framework of Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the usual family Sunday-afternoon tea meetings at Aunt Flossie's old house, children were trying on old hats stored in a loft. This gave them good opportunities to brush off both Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study nice and sad family memories. T.C. Boyle's The Road to Wellville (1993) represents a genre of comic historical biography describing some of the episodes from the life of Dr. John Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Harvey Kellogg, the inventor of the cornflake, set in 1907. One of popular historical novels with anti-racist message was E. Coleman's White Socks Only (1996).




Recommended literature

BUNBURRY, R. M. (ed.): Children's Literature Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study: The Power of Story.

Melbourne: Deakin University, 1980. BUTLER, F.: Sharing Literature with Children. A Thematic Anthology.

Prospect Heights, 111.: Waveland Press, 1989. CARPENTER, H. - PRICHARD, M. (eds.): The Oxford Companion to

Children's Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Literature. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991. GENČIOVÁ, M.: Literatura pro deti a mladez Praha: SPN, 1984. HUNT, P.: An Introduction to Children's Literature. Oxford: Oxford

University Press, 1994. HUNT, P. (ed.): International Companion Encyclopaedia of Children Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study's

Literature. London and New York: Routledge, 1998. SEDLAK, J.: Epicke žanre v literature pre deti a mladež Bratislava: SPN,

^ 1981. SUTHERLAND, Z. - ARBUTHNOT, M. H.: Children and Books. New

York: Harper Collins Publishers Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, 1991. TOWNSENd, J. R.: Written for Children. 25th edition. London: The

Bodley Head, 1990.

Tasks

1. Prepare and present an exemplary lesson based on J. F. Cooper's novel Last of the Mohicans for 10-year-old children. You are Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study recommended to pay attention to:


145

146



literary terms

animal stories, animal fantasy, biological animal stories, myth,folk tale,parable,

fable, satire, humour, realism

authors discussed

E Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study. Thompson Seton, J. O. Curwood, A. Sewell,J. London

The genre of animal story is very old, maybe the oldest of all stories, which can be proven by the oldest myths and folk Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study tales, or even by cave painting all around the world (e.g. Altamira). In general, animal stories can be roughly characterized as stories with animal characters. According to various criteria, many definitions Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study and classification of subgenres have been formulated. As an illustration, Richard Adams distinguishes four kinds of animal stories:

  1. "anthropomorphic fantasies" in which animals and birds talk and behave like people Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, involving some degree of social comment or satire (e.g. fables),

  2. "animal stories - parables" describing animals dealing with God or Providence (e.g. Kipling's Just So Stories),

  3. stories with animals represented as Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study divine agents of a supernatural power,

  4. plain animal stories without any secondary meaning123.

In this textbook, we have adopted the classification by J. R. Townsend124 who defined two basic kinds: animal fantasies and Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study biological stories125. Both of them have always been popular among children and young adults. With many exceptions, of course, it can be stated that while pre-teenagers prefer animal Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study fantasies, teenagers and

^ ADAMS, R.: Favourite Animal Stories. London: Octopus, 1981, p. 7-9. 124 TOWNSENd, J. R.: Written for Children. 25th edition. London: The Bodley Head, 1990. 1 see the chapter on animal fantasy

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young adults turn more frequently to realistic Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study or biological animal stories.

Biological stories are rather realistic; animal characters act here in accordance with biological rules and their biological instincts. Their origin probably lies in the days "when Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the First Caveman told the Second Caveman about the mammoth he hunted last Wednesday"126. However, the animals are sometimes described as if they had human-like ethics and rational thinking, which gives the stories Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study a more intensive emotionality. Children can learn about the life of animals in nature and about their specific features and relationships.

During a long development of the subgenre, several types have Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study been formed:

a) stories about animals written from the human point of view
(describing life of animals from the "outside")

b) animal stories written from an animal point of view
(describing animal life Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study from the "inside" and involving fictional animal
psychology)

  1. stories where only animals act

  2. stories showing the relationship between man and animal

Anna Sewell (1820-1877) was born in Norfolk in 1820. As a fourteen-year-old girl Anna suffered a fall Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, injured her knee and became unable to walk without a crutch. Due to her injury and later disability, she was used to using a horse-drawn carriage. Because of this, she Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study learnt a lot about horses. By using her experiences and knowledge of the abusive treatment given to horses and other animals in the Victorian era, she wrote only one book which became famous Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study - Black Beauty (1877). It tells the sad story of such a mistreated horse. The book's uniqueness lies in the fact that it is written as a first-person narrative Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study told by the horse. It describes, in quite a sentimental and patronising tone, his happy life as a foal, his experiences with both good and bad owners, and his difficult life as an Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study old and no longer useful animal. In all situations, Black Beauty keeps his character as a wise, patient and good-

ibidem, p. 9.

148

tempered being. Through reading the story, children can learn much about animal Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study life and ways of treating them. Anna Sewell died only three months after the book was published, so she never saw its great success and the consequential improvements in animal Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study breeding caused by her story.



Another author who became famous for writing so-called animal biographies was a Canadian author ^ Ernest Seton-Thompson (1860-1946). Although he was born in South Shields, England, his Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study real home was in Canada where he moved with his family in 1866. He became a respected wildlife illustrator and naturalist, a best-selling storyteller and the founder of the American Scouting Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study movement (named as "the Wolf"). His stories are realistic and full of interesting details from the lives of wild beasts. Children can learn about animal habits, their ways of communication, voices, foot Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study-prints, relationships, etc. Moreover, in all his books ethical points can be found.

Most of Seton's books show nature not only as romantic and beautiful, but also with its "shady" sides such as Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study animal cruelty during their fights and hunting. E.g., one of his biographies, ^ The Biography of Grizzly (1900), describes the life of a bear Wahb from his very "childhood" continuing through his Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study adventurous adult life to the image of a dying old bear.

Some of his other animal stories include: Wild Animals Ways, 1898, Animal Heroes, 1905.



"Nature is my religion. And my desire...my Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study ambition...the great goal I wish to achieve is to take my readers with me into the heart of this Nature. Hove it, and

I feel that they must love it. if I can only get Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the two

acquainted," these words were the life-motto of James Oliver Curwood (1878 - 1927), a well-known American journalist, nature-lover and cult author of popular animal stories, along with Jack London Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study.


149

Starting as a nine-year-old boy, Curwood's first short stories were published while he was a teen. During his lifetime he published more than 30 books and dozens of short stories Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study and essays.

As a passionate hunter, he also experienced fearful moments: while on a hunting trip in the Rocky Mountains (1885), he tried to shoot a giant grizzly. One day he met Thor Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study face to face and the bear chose not to kill him even though he had a good chance. This changed Curwood's relationship to nature and мейд him a persuaded environmentalist and Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study conservationist. As said in the preface, the author offered the book with "a confession, and a hope; the confession of one who for years hunted and killed before he learned that Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the wild offered a more thrillingsport than slaughter - and the hope that what I have written may make others feel and understand that the greatest thrill of the hunt is not in killing but Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study in letting live." Moreover, the experience became a basis for one of Curwood's most famous novels - The Grizzly King (1916), мейд into a movie in 1989 as The Bear (directed by Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study J.-J. Annaud). It is the story of Thor - a large grizzly, a bear cub called Muskwa that lost his mother and two hunters: a wise and experienced Bruce and enthusiastic Jim Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study (Curwood himself). Let us name some of Curwood's other books (many of them were adapted for films as well): The Wolf Hunters (1908); Kazan (1914); God's Country and the Woman (1915); Nomads of the North Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study (1919); The River's End (1919); The Valley of the Silent Men (1920); The Flaming Forest (1921); The Alaskan (1923); The Black Hunter (1926). In his stories and novels the motive of the survival of an Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study animal growing and maturing through various and more or less dangerous adventures on a long journey (Kazan, Nomads of the North) dominates.



And finally, the genre of animal biological stories (or wild nature, or Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study in American tradition also outdoor adventurous stories) became popular and widely read also thanks to books by ^ Jack London (1876 - 1916).

He wrote more than fifty books or novels (experimenting with numerous literary forms Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, including war novels, sentimental love stories,

150

social-critical stories, fantasy and science fiction), political essays, and journalistic articles (some of them have been translated into more than seventy languages) - stories on life Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study in wild nature being the most popular: The Son of the Wolf (1900); The Call of the Wild (1903); and White Fang (1906). "No writer, unless it were Mark Twain, ever had a Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study more romantic life than Jack London," Ernest J. Hopkins once wrote127. Always open to any adventure and fun, he spent many months hunting in the forests of Alaska, fishing and sailing (he set Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study out on a long journey to the South Pacific and Australia in 1907-09 in a small boat). Later he found himself in farming and country life.

Jack London was one of the first Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study writers who understood how to use media to market himself and create a cult - in his case a cult of poor-boy-turned-success, and became the best paid, most popular novelist Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study and short story writer of his days. After his death, however, his image of deep alcoholic-womanizer abusing drugs and committing suicide (he officially died of kidney disease at the age 40) was developed. Moreover Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, London was among the first writers to work with the movie industry, and saw a number of his novels мейд into films.

The popularity of his books is usually Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study explained by the fact Jack London centred the stories on the "big moments of living' and pointed the readers' attention to the universal (or even archetypal) values of human life: fight for survival, personal Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study dignity and integrity, courage, loyalty, freedom and obedience, etc. He personalised these universal concepts by both human and animal characters usually set into the hostile environment of the northern wilderness.

The main Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study character of the novel The Call of the Wild (1903) is called Buck. "He" was a huge, physically strong, and well-trained domestic dog who, being dog-napped and sold to Canadian Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study government mail couriers, got to Klondike in the era of the Gold Rush when good and strong dogs were highly demanded. Surrounded by cruel men and nature Buck soon rediscovered his natural instinct, the Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study "primordial urge" that was referred by London as "the Call of the Wild". Buck soon learned that survival was the most important thing and he could survive only

in ^ The San Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Francisco Bulletin, December 2, 1916.

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thanks to his tooth and fang (the basic rule of the wild: kill or be killed). After serving several masters he finally found a kind master John Thornton but, after struggling Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study between obedience and freedom, he definitely decided for his natural urge and life among wolves. This gives London the opportunity to describe in many interesting details the nature of wild animals Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study and their environment.

The book is written in the third person - from the human point of view. In spite of an appearance of absolute naturality, Buck is a mixture of human qualities Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study and animal instinct. His human features and skills -sharp wit, rational reasoning, quick thinking, and grounded common sense - makes him an allegory of man's struggles.

^ White Fang (1906) is the story of a Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study half-dog and half-wolf of the same name that was born in the wild of Alaska but soon domesticated by Indians. Being sold to white men he had to serve as Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study a sled dog in the era of the Gold Rush. He had two owners: one cruel (Beauty Smith) and the second kind (Scott). Unlike Buck from The Call of Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the Wild, White Fang "found his peace" with a man - Scott. White Fang's loyalty to his master is unlimited and at the end of the story he saved the lives of Scott and his Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study family.

The story is written in both dog's and Scott's point of view.

m

Recommended literature

^ ADAMS, R.: Favourite Animal Stories. London: Octopus, 1981. AUERBACH, J.: Male Call:Becoming Jack Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study London. Durham, NC: Duke

University Press, 1996. NUERNBERG, Susan, ed. The Critical Response to Jack London.

Westwood, CT.: Greenwood Press, 1995. REESMAN, J. C: Jack London: A Study of the Short Fiction. New York:

Twayne Publishers Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, 1999. TAVERNIER-COURBIN, J.: The Call of the Wild: A Naturalistic

Romance. New York: Twayne, 1994. TOWNSEND, J. R.: Written for Children. 25th edition. London: The

Bodley Head, 1990. http://members.aol.com/RandyWoo/bsahis/seton.htm http Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study://www.etsetoninstitute.org/

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http://www.shianet.org/community/tour/joc.html http://www.sdl.lib.mi.us/curwood.htm

Tasks

1. After self-studying of recommended literature, write a short history of
animal stories in Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study children's literature written in English.

2. Compare Anne Sewell's Black Beauty and Kenneth Grahame's The
Wind in the Willows in their approaches to animal characterization.

16. Stories with boy protagonists

literary terms

autobiography Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, local colour movement, narrative, satire

authors discussed

Charles Dickens, Mark Twain, J.D. Salinger

The literature that was written specifically for the interests and needs of boys originated approximately in the second half of the 19th Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study century. There is a very narrow line between the boys' and adventure stories, very often a boys' book is also adventurous, and vice versa. For the purpose of this textbook we consider Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study as boys' stories those in which the heroes are boys, whereas the adventurous or non-adventurous character of the story is not the criterion for our classification.

The reader of this Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study kind of literature can identify with the hero of the story and thus fulfil his own desires. He can imagine that he travels or sails to foreign countries and unknown islands; he Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study can go through various adventures and accomplish heroic tasks and deeds. As Sedlak wrote in Epické žánre v literatúre pre mládež (Epic genres in the juvenile literature), the adventures of the Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study literary heroes are the continuation of the child's playing which is a natural way to learn about the world and to discover its enigmas. Children all over the world pretend to be Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study someone else, often the heroes of their favourite books. The heroes usually possess positive qualities like courage, honesty, fairness etc., but

153










just like any other child, they like playing, enjoy rough Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study and noisy activities, and have shortcomings and foibles of ordinary children.

The literature for and about boys can be found in several forms, such as adventure novel, historical novel, or detective story. It can also Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study serve various goals of the author or the society and present some ethical or social problems. Sometimes the authors build upon their own childhood experience and add autobiographical features to Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study their work, like in Ch. Dickens's David Copperfield.

Apart from ^ David Copperfield, other well-known works for boys written in English can be mentioned, among them Oliver Twist again by Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Charles Dickens, The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain, The Catcher in the Rye by J. D. Salinger, and many others, some of which are Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study discussed in the chapter on "Adventure stories" earlier in this textbook.



^ Mark Twain (1835 - 1910) is a pseudonym of the American novelist, short-story writer and humorist Samuel Langhorne Clemens, associated with the American local colour Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study movement of 1880's. He was born in Florida, Missouri. When he was 4 his family moved to the Mississippi River town of Hannibal. He мейд the scenes and childhood experiences from this Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study place famous in his most popular novels The Adventures of Tom Sawyer and The

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Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. At the age of 12 he left school. Later he travelled throughout the East and Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Midwest as a journeyman printer. He also served in the Confederate Army but deserted. He spent the time till the end of the war in the West, some of it prospecting Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study for silver, then working as a journalist in San Francisco. In 1863 he started to use the name Mark Twain and under this name he published his first famous story The Celebrated Jumping Frog of Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Calaveras County in 1865.

Twain soon began making lecture tours. He attained great popularity through a series of works including a humorous narrative of his early travels Roughing It (1872), a satirical Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study novel The Gilded Age (1873) and ever-popular The Adventures of Tom Sawyer (1876). The last works of his optimistic period included The Prince and the Pauper (1882), and Life on the Mississippi (1883). Bad investment in 1884 drove Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study him into bankruptcy. However, the works that he wrote during the period following his bankruptcy belong to his best ones, including the renowned Adventures of Huckleberry Finn (1884). Although A Connecticut Yankee Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study in King Arthur's Court (1889) is considered as entertainment, it is already touched with pessimism. After his daughter Susy died in 1896 Twain gave up the good-humorous wit of his earlier books and Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study all the works until his death in 1910 were influenced by deep pessimism and dissatisfaction.

^ The Adventures of Tom Sawyer is a novel about an intelligent and imaginative, but at the same Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study time careless and mischievous boy. The book comprises a lot of famous episodes, such as the one in which he has to whitewash the front-yard fence as a punishment for Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study playing truant. Pretending that it is a great privilege and allowing other boys to whitewash the fence for him, of course for a considerable price, he manages to evade the task.

Tom Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study lives in the house of his Aunt Polly in the Mississippi River town of St. Petersburg. He prefers to spend most of his time outdoors together with his best friend Huck Finn Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study. Together they go through many adventures, they even witness a murder, when Injun Joe kills the town doctor and frames the drunkard Muff Potter. However, later in the book Tom becomes a hero, when Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study he stands up at the trial of Muff

155

Potter accusing the true murderer. The end is even more heroic, because Tom and Huck find a buried treasure in a cave and Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study after coming back to the town the riches are divided between them. Their story continues in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn. This sequel also bring many adventures of the two boys, although as it Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study is already suggested in the title, it is mainly Huck's story, with Tom appearing much later in the book. This work is much more critical than its predecessor. It brings Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study a bitter satire of life on the banks of the Mississippi, especially concerning the issue of slavery, thus giving to Huckleberry Finn a moral dimension, generally lacking in Tom Sawyer.

The story is narrated Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study by Huck in his native Missouri dialect and depicts the adventures and hardships that he and Miss Watson's slave Jim have to go through on their journey down the Mississippi Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study. On their way they meet murderers, lawless "aristocrats" and mobs, all of which they survive by luck and wit. By coincidence Jim is sold to the farm of Tom Sawyer's Uncle Silas Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study and Aunt Sally Phelps, and Huck having discovered his whereabouts and trying to free him pretends to be Tom. Tom himself happens to arrive and, catching on to Huck Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study's game, pretends to be his own brother Sid. The matters are set straight only when Tom's Aunt Polly arrives to the Uncle Silas's farm. At the novel's end Huck decides to Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study "light out" for the territories rather than face life with Aunt Sally, who, Huck tells the reader, plans to "civilize" him.128



Jerome David Salinger (1919 -) is an

see OUSBY, I. : ^ The Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Wordsworth Companion to Literature in English. Cambridge University Press, 1992, p. 9.

156


American short-story writer. He was born in New York City and educated at Valley Forge Military Academy, New York and Columbia universities. In Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the 1940's he published his short stories in ^ The Sunday Evening Post and other magazines. He achieved a great success with his only novel The Catcher in the Rye (1951), narrated by 16-year Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study old Holden

Caulfield rebelling against the dubious values of the adult world. In 1953 he published the collection ^ Nine Stories, in 1961 Franny and 'Looey and finally in 1963 Raise High the Roofbeam, Carpenters and Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Seymour: An Introduction.

In The Catcher in the Rye Holden Caulfield narrates his own story of rebellion against the values of the middle-class society and the adult world in Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study general. He describes his life after being expelled from his private school in Pennsylvania. He spends evenings going to nightclubs in New York City, meets many people, among them also his old girlfriend Sally Hayes Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, who rejects him. And so, Holden, completely discouraged, gets drunk and then sneaks home to see his little sister Phoebe who is the only person he really loves and misses. Although Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study he plans to "go West", he finally decides to stay. And after suffering a nervous breakdown, he tells his story as he is recovering.

Perhaps the most famous quotation in the book is Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the one explaining the source and meaning of the book's title.

^ You know that song "If a body catch a body comin' through the rye"? I'd like-' 'It Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study´s "If a body meet a body coming through the rye"! 'old Phoebe said. 'It's a poem. By Robert Burns. "I know it's a poem by Robert Burns. 'She was right Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, though. It is'If a body meet a body coming through the rye'. I didn't know it then, though I thought it was" If a body catch abody", I Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study said. 'Anyway, I keep picturing all these little kids playing some game in this big field of rye and all. Thousandsof little kids, and nobody's around - nobody big. I mean - except me Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study. And I'm standing on the edge of some crazy cliff. What I have to do, I have to catch everybody ifthey start to go over the cliff - I mean if they Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study're running and they don't look where they're goingi have to come outfrom somewhere and catch them. That's all I'd do all day. I´d just he Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the catcher in the rye and all. I know it's crazy, but that's the only thing I'd really like to be. I know it's crazy. '129

Holden pictures himself as Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the protector of innocence represented by the idealistic childhood. He prefers the world of children to the world of adults that seems to him to be banal, spoilt and hypocritical.

^ 129 SALINGER Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, J. D.: The Catcher in the Rye. London: Penguin Books, 1958, p. 178-179.

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The idea of the catcher in the rye reflects his innocence, his oversimplified view of the world, his belief in pure, uncorrupted Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study youth, as well as the desire to protect children from "falling" from childhood to adulthood and becoming as adults are.

Recommended literature

^ SALINGER, J. D.: The Catcher in the Rye. London: Penguin Books, 1958. OUSBY, I Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study.: The Wordsworth Companion to literature in English. Cambridge

University Press, 1992. SEDLAK, J.: Epicke žanre v literature pre mládež. Bratislava: Slovenske

pedagogicke nakladatel'stvo, 1981.

Tasks

  1. Compare Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn as literary characters.

  2. Compare Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study adventure books by Defoe, Swift and Stevenson on the one side, and the books by S. L. Clemens on the other side.

  3. Summarize as many typical features of stories about/for boys Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study as possible. Which of them are permanent and which have been changing along centuries?




Stories with Girls Protagonists (Girls' Literature)

Literary terms

epistolary novel, sentimentalism, stereotype

Authors discussed

Susan Coolidge, Kate Douglas Wiggin, Lucy Maud Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Montgomery, Francis Hodgson

Burnett, Samuel Richardson, Charlotte Bronte, Louisa May Alcott

Literature that was specifically written for girls and the main characters are heroines rather than heroes is nearly as old Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study as literature for boys. It originated approximately in the second half of the 19th

158

century and is represented by such famous works like Susan Coolidge's What Katy Did (1872), Kate Douglas Wiggin's Rebecca of Sunnyhrook Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Farm (1903), L. M. Montgomery's Anne of Green Gables (1908), or F. H. Burnett's The Secret Garden (1911). There are also several books that were originally not meant as juvenile literature, but that Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study were later adopted and appreciated by young audience, among them an epistolary novel by Samuel Richardson Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded (1740), considerably marked by the sentimentalism of the 18the century, or Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the 19th century novel by Charlotte Bronte Jane Eyre (1847).

Since its beginnings this kind of literature has undergone remarkable changes, as has the position and views of/towards girls and women in the society Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study. ^ Pamela, or Virtue Rewarded published in 1740 tells a story of a young woman who resists the assaults of an unscrupulous man and finally is rewarded for her virtuous behaviour - she Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study gets married to him. Burgess130 commented on this as follows:

It is a strange sort of reward, and a strange basis for marriage, according to our modern view, but this moralpersists Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study in cheap novelettes and magazines even today -a girl makes herself in accessible before marriage, and the man who tried to seduce her, weary of lack of success, at last accepts her terms.

In Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study next Richardson's novel Clarissa Harlowe, the main character having been seduced even dies worn out by shame and leaves her seducer to his remorses. Fortunately, the character of the heroin in Jane Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Eyre created approximately 100 years later, in 1847, is far from being over sentimental. Although she suffers a lot when she has to go through many hardships, the reader can feel that it only Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study makes her stronger and feels sympathetic for her.

The novel examines many sides of the circumstances of women, and Jane's words at the end, "Reader, I married him" show a new Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study move towards freedom and equality. Jane controls her own life and, through all her difficulties and problems, becomes more independent. This is

a great difference from the role given to women Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study such as Pamela or Clarissa in the novels of Samuel Richardson a century before.131

Megan Follows as Anne in Kevin Sullivan's Anne of Green Gables.

^ Anne of Green Gables

published in 1908 was a great Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study international success of the girls' literature. According to Sedlak132 it for the first time presents a kind of literature for girls that is freed from the burden of sentimentalism Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study and that is a move to a realistic, although a bit too optimistic representation of life. It is a story of an orphan accidentally sent to the house of an elderly Canadian bachelor Matthew Cuthbert Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study and his sister Marilla. Although they wanted a boy who would help them on their farm, they gradually start to love Anne. First Matthew and then also Marilla (though not so openly Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study) are charmed by her lively prattle and deeply affectionate character. The rest of the novel deals with the adventures of Anne and her friends. The following novels in this series describe Anne Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study's career and adult life, but none of them is as charming as the first one dealing with Anne's childhood.

From the point of view of breaking stereotypes in the literature Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study for and about girls we should mention another children's literature classic, The Secret Garden (1911) by F. H. Burnett. This book is different from the girls' stories written before Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study and also from the preceding books of F. H. Burnett. It is not only because Mary Lennox, the main character of the story, has a very little in common with the beautiful Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study and beloved child from Burnett's Little Lord Fauntleroy. What makes this work different is Mary's behaviour and the way she is described. At the beginning Mary was described as the most Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study disagreeable-looking child ever seen... She had a little thin face and a little thin body, thin light hair and a sour


130CARTER, R. & McRAE, J.: The Penguin Guide to English Literature: Britain Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study and Ireland. Penguin Books, 1996, p. 158.

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131 CARTER, R. & McRAE, J.: op.cit., p. 130.

12 ^ SEDLAK, J.: Epicke zanre v literature pre mladez. Bratislava: Slovenske

pedagogicke nakladatel'stvo, 1981, p.275.

160

expression. Her hair was yellow, and Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study her face was yellow because she had been born in India and had always been ill in one way or another. 13J

She was absolutely dependent on the others, could not play, had no imagination Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study. However, throughout the book she undergoes a great change and turns into a healthy-looking, happy, and active girl that is full of ideas about what the secret garden can look Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study like and what she can do to make it alive again. The garden has a great importance in the process of Mary's transformation. The garden in children's literature represents Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study a realm of child's innocence and experience, playfulness and dreaming. Mary's secret garden has restorative properties. Playing there, working, and planting trees help her to protect herself against her loneliness Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study and rejection. The garden compensates her loss. While Mary is transforming the garden, she herself is being transformed by the garden as well. The garden stands here as a place of Mary's rebirth Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study and revival. However, it is not only Mary who experiences the positive effects of the garden. She also helps her ill and spoilt cousin Colin to get over his mental and physical Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study deprivation. Ironically, Colin snatches the end of Mary's story for himself and thus the book ends as Colin's story. At the end Mary fades into the background and the secret garden Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study, the place of the growth becomes the place of the defeat. Lisa Paul134 comments on it and admits that it is probably the only possible ending of the story to retain Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study the order in the family and society: Social order is restored... Burnett ends the story in accordance with the social and economic truths and values of her particular time and place. However, when Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study we consider Mary's transformation from our present point of view, it was a positive change and it was only possible because Mary was not told by anyone what she Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study was or was not allowed to do. She was not given rules by the society; she was left alone to do what she chose. If she had not been she would Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study have never found the secret garden and brought it back to life. She would not have been allowed to wander alone in the gardens, run until she was nearly out of breath. Having followed the Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study rules of the nature she became an independent, active, healthy, and happy girl,

^ 133 BURNETT, F. H.: The Secret Garden. Wordsworth Editions Ltd, 1993, p. 1.

134 see PAUL, L.: 'Enigma Variations: What Feminist Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Theory Knows About
Children's Literature'. In Signal, 54. September 1987, pp. 186-201.

161

which would not have been possible if she had followed the rules of the society, because some of these characteristics, like independence, individualism Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study and self-reliance were considered unsuitable for girls in that time - nature stands against nurture. In many other girls' stories such behaviour would be punished. For example, Jo in L. M Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study. Alcott's Little Women (1868, 1869) is not allowed to go to Europe because of her behaviour and independent spirit. And gradually she changes from a vital girl to a repressed woman.

Jo is, in fact, the Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study perfect embodiment of physical, economic and linguistic entrapment. She is shut up in her attic, secretly writing romance fiction (to support the family) while her pretentious father holds court Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study in the main-floor study. She is мейд to feel ashamed of her writing by her husband, Professor Bhaer, and to give it up in favour of a really useful profession - raising boys Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study. Dependence is treated as the preferred occupation.135

Fortunately, what happened to Jo did not happen to Mary. Maybe because ^ The Secret Garden ends with Mary still being a child. But even as a Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study child she is not punished for her behaviour that would be perfectly suitable for boys, but absolutely unsuitable for girls. And thus, Burnett created a story that was different from the Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study other girls' stories written before. But as the society changes, so do the views towards the education of girls and also the literature for them and about them. Of course, also in Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study our present society there are many differences between what girls and boys prefer doing or what they are or are not allowed to do, but a book presenting an independent, self-reliant Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study young woman would not be anything unusual or rare any longer.

w

Recommended literature

CARTER, R. & McRAE, J.: The Penguin Guide to English Literature:

Britain and Ireland. Penguin Books, 1996. BURGESS, A.: English Literature. Addison Wesley Longman Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Limited,

1998. OUSBY, L: The Wordsworth Companion to Literature in English.

Cambridge University Press, 1992.

ibidem.

162

SEDLAK, J.: Epicke zanrc v literature pre mladez. Bratislava: Slovenske

pedagogicke nakladatel'stvo, 1981. BURNETT, F. H.: The Secret Eleanor Cameron - Children's Literature and Its Study Garden. Wordsworth Editions Ltd, 1993. PAUL, L.: 'Enigma Variations: What Feminist Theory Knows About

Children's Literature'. In Signal, 54. September 1987, pp.186-201.

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