D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World...


^ D.Implementing appropriate management strategies At the same time, extreme weather events, physical and biological changes and increasing pressures from other human activities affect the conditions of integrity of the properties, thus requiring appropriate D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... adaptation and mitigation management. Therefore, should this new management requirement be considered a prerequisite for a site to meet the conditions of integrity? The integrity required for inscription of natural World Heritage sites D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... might however prove to be an asset when it comes to alleviating Climate Change impacts through “healthy” landscapes and seascapes. Climate change impacts are also likely to give added importance to well D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... managed and designed buffer zones which link World Heritage sites with the surrounding landscape. ^ E.The possible implications for the Operational Guidelines As mentioned above, accounting for Climate Change impacts in the D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... evaluation, monitoring, reporting, and conservation of World Heritage sites is an important task, and it may have implications in the working processes of the World Heritage Committee. Therefore, in the face of D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... Climate Change, it is appropriate to assess whether the procedures outlined in the current Operational Guidelines for the Implementation of the World Heritage Convention are adequate, and also to D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... clarify the role of the World Heritage Convention and its Committee in dealing with this issue. It is particularly timely and imperative to prepare a tailored Climate Change strategy for World Heritage. ^ V.What can D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... be done with respect to Climate Change and World Heritage? Experience and lessons learned on addressing Climate Change stress the need for using a number of management responses at national and D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... local levels. These responses are applicable in the context of the Convention and the possible options are synthesized in the main part of the Working Document WHC-06/ 30 COM/7.1 (section II) and described D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... in detail below.
    1. ^ International conventions
Addressing Climate Change issues at different levels requires the development of synergies and partnerships with other multilateral environmental agreements and initiatives that are also working on this D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... issue. Therefore, it is important for the World Heritage Committee to establish closer working links with many of the following programmes and initiatives. ^ The UNFCCC and the Kyoto protocol The major accomplishment D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... of the United Nations Framework Convention for Climate Change (UNFCCC, 1992) was to recognise the problem of Climate Change. In the early 1990s there was less scientific evidence on Climate Change. The Convention D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... recognised that the climate system is a shared resource whose stability can be affected by emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases. Governments were required to gather and share D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... information about greenhouse gas emissions and national policies. They were to launch national strategies for addressing greenhouse gas emissions with the ultimate objective “to achieve […] stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system […] within a time-frame sufficient to allow ecosystems to adapt naturally to Climate Change, to ensure that food production is not D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... threatened and to enable economic development to proceed in a sustainable manner” (Article 2 of the UNFCCC). The heaviest burden for combating Climate Change was placed on developed countries, recognising D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... that emissions in less economically developed countries would rise to ensure vital economic development. The Framework was a document that was to be amended and augmented over time, the first addition being the Kyoto Protocol D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... (1997). ^ The Programme of work (Buenos Aires) requested further implementation of actions including: a)data and modelling, vulnerability and adaptation assessment and implementation; b)that GEF report on support of the programme D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World...; c)that the UNFCCC secretariat organise regional workshops to facilitate information exchange and integrated assessments on adaptation reflecting regional priorities. The Subsidiary Body for Scientific and Technological Advice (SBSTA) was D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... requested to develop a structured five-year programme of work on impacts, vulnerability and adaptation. The draft list of activities (2006-2008) include methods and tools, data and observations, climate modelling and downscaling, thresholds D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World..., socio-economic data, adaptation practices, research, adaptation platform and economic diversification. In the meantime three new funds have been established, a data base on local coping strategies was мейд available, capacity building frameworks D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... have been agreed on, a Consultative Group of Experts (CGE) has developed hands-on training materials and a seminar on the development and transfer of technologies for adaptation took place in D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... June 2005. The World Heritage Committee could collaborate with the UNFCCC secretariat on Climate Change issues by presenting information at the Conference of the Parties (COP) and subsidiary bodies meetings, being involved in the D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... SBSTA 5-year work programme, encouraging exchange of experts and by using UNFCCC guidelines. National Focal Points of both Conventions could also work together on Climate Change issues. ^ UNESCO’s Programme on Man and the D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... Biosphere (MAB) The MAB Ecosystem based research фокус includes research on sustainability, minimizing biodiversity loss and carbon sequestration issues. A number of priority ecosystems have been identified, including mountains, dry and D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... arid lands, humid tropics, coastal zones and small islands as well as urban areas. Biosphere reserves have been used as a network for testing ways and means of minimizing biodiversity loss (2010 target), and D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... addressing threats and opportunities posed by Climate Change. The high environmental sensitivity of coupled human-environment systems in mountain areas provides ideal circumstances for studying global change impacts. The UNESCO MAB Programme D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... has therefore, together with the Mountain Research Initiative (MRI), launched a project on Global Change in Mountain Regions (GLOCHAMORE) which will attempt to address global change issues by reviewing the D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... state of global change research in selected mountain biosphere reserves. These will then be used as pilot study areas for implementing activities that will help in assessing the impacts of global change D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... on mountain environments and people. The biosphere reserves selected to take part in the initial stages of the project include a number of World Heritage sites1. Therefore, the World Heritage Convention and D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... UNESCO MAB Programme could cooperate and coordinate their activities in the field of developing and implementing monitoring, adaptation and mitigation options for World Heritage sites and Biosphere Reserves in mountain ecosystems. In addition D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World..., there is considerable overlap and synergy between Biosphere Reserves and Ramsar sites (85), Biosphere Reserves and World Heritage sites (74) and all three (18) and these could specifically provide sustainable development approaches to D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... improve carbon sequestration, livelihoods and minimizing biodiversity loss. ^ Ramsar Convention on Wetlands (1971) The attention to Climate Change issues is growing in the framework of the Ramsar Convention2 leading to the Conference of the Parties (COP D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World...8, Valencia 2002) and the documents prepared for this including “Climate Change and Wetlands: Impacts, Adaptation and Mitigation” 3. There are plans to update and to look specifically into additional sources of information on D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... wetland ecosystems and species including inland and coastal wetlands as well as peatlands. Resolution VIII.3 which was adopted by the contracting parties states “… that Climate Change is occurring and may substantially affect the D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... ecological character of wetlands and their sustainable use” and “... that wetlands could play a role in adapting to and in mitigating Climate Change”. A major component of adaptation that needs further D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... attention is the assessment of the vulnerability of wetlands to Climate Change. Many wetlands are vulnerable to Climate Change either due to their sensitivity to changes in hydrological regimes and/or due to D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... the other pressures from human activities. The management challenges include addressing the impacts of multiple pressures where Climate Change is an added pressure. Wetlands are vulnerable to Climate Change D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... and have limited adaptive capacity. Therefore innovative solutions are required. Management plans need to consider impacts from Climate Change and other pressures, have to minimize changes in hydrology from other human activities, to D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... reduce non-climate pressures, to monitor the changes. Monitoring is essential to look at the effectiveness of adaptation options and steps to rectify any adverse effects should be part of the D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... adaptive management strategy. A key limitation to implementing adaptation and mitigation n options for wetlands is the lack of knowledge of wetland hydrology, functioning, their uses and past and present management. Pilot research D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... projects at wetland World Heritage sites, which are also Ramsar sites, could help to fill this gap. Contracting Parties to the Ramsar Convention have to manage wetlands to increase their resilience to Climate D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... Change and variability (extreme climatic events - floods and droughts) and promote wetland and watershed protection and restoration. The Ramsar Convention recognises that Climate Change impacts will vary between different wetland types D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... and overall adaptation options are required. Again, the capacity of different regions to adapt to Climate Change depends upon their current and future states of socio-economic development and their exposure to climate stresses D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World.... In general, the potential for adaptation is more limited for developing countries, which are also projected to be more adversely affected by Climate Change. A number of World Heritage D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... sites are also Ramsar sites4, and any response strategies for wetland World Heritage sites should build on previous work, in particular under the Ramsar Convention. The sites in common include the Danube Delta, Everglades, Doñana D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... National Park, Lake Baikal. The Ramsar Convention particularly concentrates on wise and sustainable use through the ecosystem approach. Wetlands sustainability is sensitive to any change in climatic parameters as temperature D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... and precipitation, in addition by 2080 about 20% of existing coastal wetlands could be lost to sea-level rise. ^ Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) This Convention covers a wide range of issues related to the conservation D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... and sustainable use of biodiversity. The impacts of Climate Change on biodiversity are already a major concern to the Convention on Biological Diversity. In 2000, the Conference of the Parties (COP) drew D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... attention to the serious impacts of loss of biodiversity on terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and on people’s livelihoods and requested the Convention’s Subsidiary Body on Scientific, Technical and Technological Advice (SBSTTA D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World...) to establish an ad hoc technical expert group. This group carried out an in-depth assessment of the inter-linkages between biodiversity and Climate Change. There are significant opportunities for mitigating Climate D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... Change, and for adapting to Climate Change while enhancing the conservation of biodiversity. The report also identified tools to help decision makers to assess impacts and make informed choices D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... for mitigation and adaptation projects. In 2004, the 7th COP (Kuala Lumpur, 2004) promoted synergy among the activities to address Climate Change, including desertification and land degradation, conservation, sustainable use of biodiversity, and the D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... development by 2010 of national level conservation strategies that are specifically designed to be resilient to Climate Change. Another expert group on biodiversity and adaptation to Climate Change was established, which undertook a detailed D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... assessment. One of the main findings is that the ability of natural and managed ecosystems to adapt autonomously to Climate Change is insufficient to halt the rate of biodiversity loss and that adaptation D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... towards increasing ecosystem resilience should be promoted. If one considers the example of species shifting ranges, although past changes in the global climate resulted in major shifts in species ranges, and D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... biomes, these changes occurred in landscapes that were not as fragmented as today, and with fewer pressures from human activities therefore, one of the фокус of the CBD includes the creation of corridors to D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... protect biodiversity from the effects of Climate Change. Further, to recognise the important role that protected areas can play in mitigating some of the impacts of Climate Change. These D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... findings provide advice and guidance on how to mainstream biodiversity into Climate Change activities, at the biophysical level and at the level of tools and practical approaches. This information can be applied to the D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... management of protected areas in general, and to World Heritage sites in particular, in order to mitigate and adapt to Climate Change. ^ Links between the conventions It is recommended that close D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... and effective linkages with these conventions and Programmes be an integral element of any initiative relating to Climate Change and World Heritage properties. Further consultation is essential with the Secretariats of D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... these conventions and programmes. Also it is important to note the “Issue Based Modules (IBM)” initiative being developed by UNEP in partnership with UNEP-WCMC and IUCN for the coherent implementation of D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... the biodiversity related Multilateral Environmental Agreements (MEAs). The pilot phase of this project has identified “Climate Change” as one of the 4 IBMs. The IBMs bring together all the decisions of these MEAs on that particular D.Implementing appropriate management strategies - P redicting and managing the effects of Climate Change on World... issue and provide guidance to the State Parties for their implementation.
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