Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции....


Culture

Much of contemporary New Zealand culture is derived from British roots. It also includes significant influences from American, Australian and Māori cultures, along with those of other European cultures and – more recently – non Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции....-Māori Polynesian and Asian cultures. Large festivals in celebration of Diwali and Chinese New Year are held in several of the larger centres. The world's largest Polynesian festival, Pasifika Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции...., is an annual event in Auckland. Cultural links between New Zealand and the United Kingdom are maintained by a common language, sustained migration from the United Kingdom, and many young New Zealanders spending time Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... in the United Kingdom on their "overseas experience" (OE). The music and cuisine of New Zealand are similar to that of Australia, Canada, UK, and the US, although both have distinct New Zealand Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... and Pacific qualities.

Māori culture has undergone considerable change since the arrival of Europeans; in particular the introduction of Christianity in the early 19th century brought about fundamental change Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... in everyday life. Nonetheless the perception that most Māori now live similar lifestyles to their Pākehā neighbours is a superficial one. In fact, Māori culture has significant differences, for instance the important role which the Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... marae and the extended family continue to play in communal and family life. As in traditional times, Māori habitually perform karakia to ensure the favourable outcome of important undertakings, but today Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... the prayers used are generally Christian. Māori still regard their allegiance to tribal groups as a vital part of personal identity, and Māori kinship roles resemble those of other Polynesian peoples. As part Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... of the resurgence of Māori culture that came to the fore in the late 20th century, the tradition-based arts of kapa haka (song and dance), carving and weaving Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... are now more widely practiced, and the architecture of the marae maintains strong links to traditional forms. Māori also value their connections to Polynesia, as attested by the increasing popularity of waka ama (outrigger Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... canoe racing), which is now an international спорт involving teams from all over the Pacific.

^ Te Reo Māori

Use of the Māori language (Te Reo Māori) as a living, community language remained Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... only in a few remote areas in the post-war years, but is currently undergoing a process of revitalization, thanks in part to Māori language immersion schools and two Māori Television channels.http Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции....://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/New_Zealand - cite_note-90#cite_note-90 This is the only nationwide television channel to have the majority of its prime-time content delivered in Māori, primarily because Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... only 4% of the population speak Te Reo Māori. However, partly in recognition of the importance of Māori culture to New Zealand, the language was declared one of New Zealand's Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... official languages in 1987.





Twilight bagpipe band practice, Napier




Performers in traditional Māori clothing.


Holidays


People from the northern hemisphere never seem to be­come completely familiar with upside-down seasons. To them Christmas simply Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... doesn't fall in the middle of summer and how is it possible to have mid-winter cold in August?

Public holiday's inc1ude:

January

New Year's Day and the next Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... day (1st and 2nd)

February

Waitangi Day or New Zealand Day (6th)

^ March or April

Good Friday Easter Monday

April

Anzac Day (25th)

June

Queen's Birthday (1st Monday)

October

Labor Day (4th Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Monday)

December

Christmas Day and Boxing Day (25th & 26th)


^ Newspapers and Magazines


There is no national paper although the New Zealand Her­ald (Auckland), the Dominion (Wellington) and the Press (Christchurch) all have Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... wide circulations. Backing up the city newspapers are numerous local dailies, same OK, some not. The closest to a national weekly news magazine is the Listener, an excellent publication which provides Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... a weekly TV & radio guide, plus in-depth articles on the arts, social issues and politics. The international publications such as Time and Newsweek are available almost anywhere.


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Radio and Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... TV


There are two national noncommercial radio stations and many regional 01' local commercial stations, broadcasting on the AM and FM banes.

There are three commercial TV stations (Channels One, Two & Three) plus Sky Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции...., a subscriber television service with news, sports, and movie and documentary channels.


Arts


New Zealand has a multi-faceted arts scene with both Maori and Pakeha engaged in all kinds of Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... traditional and modern arts. Although there are distinct 'Maori arts' and 'Pakeha .arts', in fact there is rarely a division in who practices which arts. There are Pakeha people who enjoy carv­ing In bone Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... and painting in traditionally Maori styles; Maori songs, poi dances, and a little bit of Maori language are taught In schools and all New Zealand children, regardless of background, learn them Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции..... Likewise, there are many Maori people who excel in the traditionally Pakeha arts - there are Maori in theatre, music and many European art forms. Dame Kiri Te Kanawa, a Maori, is one Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... of the world's best known operatic divas, and there are many other examples.

New Zealand literature, especially, is an arena in which the Maori are making a strong mark - though the written Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... word was not traditionally apart of Maori culture NZ is experiencing a movement of dynamic Maori writing in fiction, non-fiction, poetry and every other written form.


^ Maori Arts


Maori arts Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... are dramatic in many ways, and they include various arts that people of European backgrounds might not be familiar with.

Traditionally the Maori did not keep a written history; their history Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... was kept in long, very specific and stylized songs and chants. As in many parts of the world where oral history has been practiced, oratory, song and chant devel­oped to a magnificent art in Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Maori culture. The many rituals associated with Maori protocol are also quite stylized- if you ever visit a mare and are greeted with the traditional haka (war chant) and wero (challenge), you Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... will appreciate how artistic they are. The Maori arts of song and dance in­clude so me special features such as the poi dance and action songs. Martial arts, using a variety Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... of traditional weapons and movements, are highly stylized and developed

Other Maori arts inc1ude crafts such as wood, bone and jade carving, basketry and weaving, including a distinctive form of wall paneling Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... known as tukutuku, which can be seen on mare and in Maori churches. Wood carvings, tuku­tuku wall panels and distinctive styles of painting (espe­cially on the rafters and ceilings) can Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... be seen in most Maori meeting houses. These traditional Maori arts are not used only on the mare, though - wood and bone carving, paint­ing, basketry and various other arts Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... are being used in both traditional and new ways, creating some vibrant artistic works.


^ Sir William Hamilton OBE

(1899 - 1978)

As well as giving his name to the company he founded in 1939, C.W Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.....F.(Bill) Hamilton left a legacy of combining sound engineering practices with innovation and excellence. As a small boy he had dreamed of a boat that would carry him up the swift flowing Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... rivers of his homeland. Such foresight was typical of this distinguished New Zealand inventor and innovator.





In 1954 his dream became a reality, and in the 50 years since the Hamilton Waterjet has revolutionised the world Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... of conventional boating.


A humble man, Sir William often claimed that it was not he who invented the waterjet - that honour he attributed to the great mind of Archimedes. His Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... greatest achievement was to improve the idea and make it work in the specialised field of boat propulsion.

Charles William Feilden Hamilton was born at Ashwick Station near Fairlie (South Island, New Zealand) on Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... July 26, 1899. He was educated at Waihi School, Winchester, and later at Christ's College, Christchurch. But it was to Ashwick that he owed the education that encouraged his naturally inventive mind. The Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... land provided him with the opportunity to best exploit his unique style of mechanical genius.




In 1921 Bill Hamilton bought the 10,000 hectare Irishman Creek Station, one of the most notable Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... sheep and cattle runs in the Mackenzie Country (Central Otago). Here he quickly established his first workshop - forerunner to the Hamilton Group of Companies.

His first project was the construction of a Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... two hectare dam for a hydro-electric plant to provide power for the station's homestead and workshop. Conventional earth moving scoops proved inadequate so, in typical Hamilton fashion, he invented his Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... own more efficient model. This scoop, the "I.C. Excavator", was used extensively for local contract work, with several more being manufactured and sold in New Zealand and Britain.

Essentially a self-taught Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... engineer, Sir William spent countless evenings at his drawing board doodling and designing. While he approached problems in an unorthodox way, he always produced machines consistent with the best engineering practices.

The Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Irishman Creek workshop also became an important machining and engineering training facility during the Second World War. Here Sir William taught many unskilled men to do high-precision work, with the Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... workshop producing munitions as well as earthmoving equipment.

Towards the end of the war, Sir William was required to make one of the most crucial decisions of his life. The increasing demand for agricultural and Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... earthmoving equipment and machinery presented him with the choice of working within the limitations imposed at Irishman Creek, or expanding. Never one to ignore a challenge, he decided to rent a small Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... works building in Bath Street, Christchurch and match the keen demand for his machines.

Steady expansion continued, and in 1948 Sir William purchased a 10 hectare site at Middleton, Christchurch. A 465 square meter Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... factory was constructed for the production of bulldozers, scrapers, excavators and hydraulic machinery.

The shift to Christchurch allowed the Irishman Creek workshop to become solely a research and development centre Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции..... This provided the opportunity to devote resources to the development of the Hamilton Waterjet. Sir William's first jetboat was a 3.6 meter (12 foot) plywood hull with a 100 E Форд engine, and the jet a centrifugal Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... type pump. This craft was tested on the Irishman Creek dam and water race before successfully, if somewhat slowly, travelling up the Waitaki River in early 1954. From then on Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Sir William and his team gradually improved the design of the waterjet, adding greater efficiency, power and speed.

Continual improvements in the waterjet design, particularly the shift to a multi-stage axial flow pumping system Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции...., allowed boats to travel to places that had never been accessible before. In 1960, Sir William's son Jon was a key member of the Colorado River expedition team - the first to Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... travel up through the Grand Canyon. Over the next 20 years other ground-breaking trips were мейд up the Sun Kosi (Nepal), Sepik (Papua New Guinea), Zaire, Ganges and Amazon Rivers, and jetboats Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... became widely used for flood relief, surveying and recreation.

Before his death in 1978, Bill Hamilton was recognised for his services to manufacturing with a knighthood. In 1990 he was inducted into the Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... New Zealand Sports Hall of Fame, and in 2004 he was inducted into the New Zealand Business Hall of Fame.


Ernest Rutherford 1871-1937 Physicist







Ernest Rutherford was the brilliant New Zealand physicist who explained natural radioactivity, determined the structure of the atom, and changed one element into another (nitrogen to Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... oxygen) by splitting an atom's nucleus. A farm boy from New Zealand's South Island, he spent most of his professional career overseas at McGill University in Montreal, Canada (1895-98), and at Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Manchester University (1898-1907) and Cambridge University (1919-37) in the United Kingdom. Rutherford was an energetic pioneer in nuclear physics: he discovered (and named) alpha and beta radiation, named the nucleus and Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... proton and won the 1908 Nobel prize in chemistry for explaining radioactivity as the disintegration of atoms. Rutherford's description of an atomic structure with orbital electrons became the accepted model (with further help provided by Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... his student and colleague, Niels Bohr), and in 1920 he predicted the existence of the neutron, which was later discovered by James Chadwick. Rutherford was knighted in 1914, served as president Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... of the Royal Society from 1925-30, and in 1931 was named Ernest, Lord Rutherford of Nelson (New Zealand).


^ Rutherford - A Brief Biography

John Campbell


Ernest Rutherford is one of the most illustrious scientists of all time. He is Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... to the atom what Darwin is to evolution, Newton to mechanics, Faraday to electricity and Einstein to relativity. His pathway from rural child to immortality is a fascinating one.

Rutherford's works Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... ensure his immortality. As the The New York Times stated, in a eulogy accompanying the announcement of his unexpected and unnecessary death in 1937.
" It is given to but few men to Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... achieve immortality, still less to achieve Olympian rank, during their own lifetime. Lord Rutherford achieved both. In a generation that witnessed one of the greatest revolutions in the entire history of science he Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... was universally acknowledged as the leading explorer of the vast infinitely complex universe within the atom, a universe that he was first to penetrate."

Not for him the fame based on one Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... discovery. He radically altered our understanding of nature on three separate occasions. Through brilliantly conceived experiments, and with special insight, he explained the perplexing problem of radioactivity as the spontaneous Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... disintegration of atoms (they were not necessarily stable entities as had been assumed since the time of the ancient Greeks), he determined the structure of the atom and he was the world's first successful Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... alchemist (he converted nitrogen into oxygen). Or put another way, he was first to split the atom.

Any of his secondary discoveries, such as dating the age of the Earth, would have Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... given fame to a lesser scientist. For example, the first method invented to detect individual nuclear particles by electrical means, the Rutherford-Geiger detector, evolved into the Geiger-Muller tube. The modern Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... smoke detector, responsible for saving so many lives in house fires, can be traced back to 1899 when, at McGill University in Canada, Rutherford blew tobacco smoke into his ionisation chamber and observed Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... the change in ionisation.



Family


His background is rather unique, having been born in New Zealand, a country which, within a mere 50 years of formal European settlement of that remote British Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Colony, could admit him to its, already 20-year-old, university.

Ernest Rutherford was born at Spring Grove in rural Nelson on August 30th 1871, the second son and fourth child of twelve born Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... to James and Martha Rutherford. Scottish James had arrived in New Zealand in 1843 as a four-year old. James became a wheelwright and engineer, and later a flax-miller. As a boy Ernest Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... was surrounded by hard-working people with technical skills. Map of main locations in New Zealand.

Martha Rutherford (nйe Thompson) was born in England and arrived in New Plymouth in 1855 as a Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... thirteen-year old. She was evacuated to Nelson in 1860 during the Taranaki Land War. Had it not been for that war James and Martha would never have met. Martha became a Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... teacher at the Spring Grove school where her efforts were always praised by the provincial school inspector. So Ernest Rutherford and his siblings received a good education because of parents who appreciated education: his Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... father because he hadn't had much and his mother because she had.

Ern led the life typical of a child growing up in rural New Zealand. Family chores, such as Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... milking cows and gathering firewood, ate up time after school. On Saturdays the boys were free for swimming in the creek, and birdsnesting to raise money for catapult rubber and kite Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... strings. The family shifted according to the father's work; in 1876 to Foxhill for farming and railway construction, in 1883 to Havelock in the Marlborough Sounds for flax-milling, and finally in 1888 to Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Taranaki for flaxmilling.


Childhood


At age ten at Foxhill School Ernest received his first science book. Amongst the many suggested experiments in it one, on using the speed of sound to determine the distance Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... to a firing cannon, gave him the knowledge to surprise his family by estimating the distance to a lighting flash. Perhaps it was also this book which inspired him to make a Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... minature cannon out of a hat peg, a marble and blasting powder. The cannon exploded, luckily without causing injury.

At Havelock Ernest was lucky to avoid the drowning fate of two Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... of his brothers and lucky to be taught by a country school-teacher of above average ability. In 1887 Ernest, on his second attempt, won a Scholarship to Nelson College, until that Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... time the only scholarship available to assist a Marlborough boy to attend secondary school.

For the next three years Ernest boarded at Nelson College. In 1889 he was head boy (the Dux of the school Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции...., hence his nick-name `quacks'), played in the rugby team and, once again on his second attempt, won one of the ten scholarships available nationally to assist attendance at a college Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... of the University of New Zealand.


University


From 1890 to 1894 Ern attended Canterbury College in Christchurch. There he played rugby and participated in the activities of the Dialectic Society (a student debating society), the graduation day Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... celebrations (for which he co-wrote one song) and the recently formed Science Society. In 1892 he passed BA in Pure Mathematics and Latin (both compulsory), Applied Mathematics, English, French Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... and Physics.

His mathematical ability won him the one Senior Scholarship in Mathematics available in New Zealand. This allowed him to return for a further (honours or Masters) year during which he took Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... both mathematics and physics. For the latter Ern was influenced by Alexander Bickerton, a liberal freethinker. The physics course required an original investigation so Ern elected to extend an undergraduate experiment Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... in order to determine if iron was magnetic at very high frequencies of magnetising current. In this he had been inspired by Nikola Tesla's use of his high frequency Tesla coil to transmit power Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... without wires. Ern developed two devices; a simple mechanism for switching two electrical circuits with a time interval between them which could be adjusted to be as short as a hundred thousandth Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... of a second, and a magnetic detector of very fast current pulses.

In 1893 Ern obtained a Master of Arts degree with double First Class Honours, in Mathematics and Mathematical Physics and Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... in Physical Science (Electricity and Magnetism). At this time he boarded with a widow, Mary Newton, who, as secretary of the Woman's Christian Temperance Union, was a leader in Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... the movement which culminated in 1893 when New Zealand became the first country in the world to grant women the vote. Coincidentally it was also the first election for which Ern was old Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... enough to appear on the electoral roll.

Having failed for the third time to obtain a permanent job as a school-teacher, and having briefly considered going into medicine, Ern had few other options for Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... a career. He seemed to be limited to tutoring, to help support himself whilst carrying out more research in electrical science. The Royal Commissioners for the Exhibition of 1851 had just initiated Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... scholarships to allow graduates of universities in the British Empire to go anywhere in the world and work on research of importance to their home country's industries. Every second year Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... one scholarship was available for a graduate of the University of New Zealand.

Thus it was that in 1894 Ern returned to Canterbury College where he took geology and chemistry for a Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... BSc degree. (A candidate for a scholarship had to be enrolled at the University.) For the research work required of a candidate, Ern extended his researches of the previous year to even higher frequencies Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... using the damped oscillatory current from discharging a Leyden-jar (an electrical capacitor) or a Hertzian oscillator. He showed that a steel needle surrounded by a wire loop in the discharge circuit was Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... indeed magnetised for frequencies as high as 500 million per second. By slowly dissolving the needle in acid he showed that only a very thin surface layer of the needle Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... was magnetised.

Two candidates submitted work for the scholarship allocated to New Zealand. The University's examiners in England recommended that James Maclaurin of Auckland University College be nominated. (His brother later became the President Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.) Maclaurin could not accept the terms of the scholarship so the University therefore nominated Ern, the only other candidate, who was duly awarded Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... it.


Cambridge I


Ernest Rutherford left New Zealand in 1895 as a highly skilled 23-year-old who held three degrees from the University of New Zealand and had a reputation as an outstanding researcher and innovator working Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... at the forefront of electrical technology. His brilliance at experimental research was already established.

He elected to work with Professor J J Thomson of Cambridge University's Cavendish Laboratory and was Cambridge Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... University's first non-Cambridge-graduate research student. Rutherford adapted his detector of very fast transient currents for use as a frequency meter and used it to measure the dielectric properties Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... of electrical insulators. To compare its sensitivity as a detector of electromagnetic waves against that of the standard detector of the time, the coherer, he mounted his detector in the receiving circuit Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... of a Hertzian oscillator/receiver unit and found, as had others before him, that he could detect electromagnetic waves over a few metres even when there was a brick wall Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... between the two circuits.

Encouraged by Sir Robert Ball, who wished to solve the difficult problem that a ship could not detect a lighthouse in fog, and sensing fame and fortune, Rutherford increased the Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... sensitivity of his apparatus until, in February of 1896, he could detect electromagnetic waves over a distance of several hundred metres, a then world record.

JJ Thomson, who was about to discover the Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... first object smaller than an atom (the electron), quickly realised that Rutherford was a researcher of exceptional ability. Thomson invited him to join in a study of the electrical conduction of Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... gases. Wireless telegraphy was thus left for Guglielmo Marconi to develop and commercialize.

Rutherford developed several ingenious techniques to study the mechanism whereby normally insulating gases become electrical conductors when a Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... high voltage is applied across them. When X-rays were discovered a few months later he used them to initiate electrical conduction in gases. He repeated this with rays from radioactive atoms when Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... they were discovered in 1896. His interest soon switched to understanding radioactivity itself, an interest which became his life's work but his contribution to the earlier fields should not be forgotten.

In Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... 1898 Rutherford discovered that two quite separate types of emissions came from radioactive atoms and he named them alpha and beta rays. Beta rays were soon shown to be high speed electrons.

Barred Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... in the near term from advancement at Cambridge, Rutherford in 1898 accepted a professorship at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. (The following year Cambridge University changed its rules to allow earlier promotion to Fellowship.) The Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... laboratories at McGill were very well equipped. As Rutherford wrote to his wife-to-be ``I am expected to do a lot of work and to form a research Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... school in order to knock the shine out of the Yankees!''

Rutherford returned to New Zealand in 1900 to marry Mary Georgina Newton, the daughter of his landlady in Christchurch. They were to Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... have one child, Eileen.


Canada


At McGill Rutherford promptly discovered radon, a chemically unreactive but radioactive gas. In this he was assisted by his first research student, Harriet Brookes. Rutherford, with the later help of Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... a young chemist, Frederick Soddy, unravelled the mysteries of radioactivity, showing that some heavy atoms spontaneously decay into slightly lighter atoms. This was the work which first brought him to world attention. He Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society of Canada in 1900 and of London in 1903. His first book Radioactivity was published in 1904. In 1908 he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry `for Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... his investigations into the disintegration of the elements and the chemistry of radioactive substances.' As a bemused Ern often told friends, the fastest transformation he knew of was his transformation from a Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... physicist to a chemist.

It is usually overlooked that Rutherford’s Nobel Prize was the first awarded for work done in Canada. This is because the award was мейд Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... after he had shifted to Manchester in 1907.

On realising that lead was the final decay product of uranium, Rutherford proposed that a measure of their relative proportions and the rate of decay of Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... uranium atoms would allow minerals to be dated and, subsequently, this technique placed a lower limit on the age of the formation of the Earth. Radioactive dating of geological samples underpins Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... modern geology. Throughout his time in Canada Rutherford was regularly head-hunted by American universities and institutions, for example Yale and the Smithsonian Institute. The main result of these approaches was that Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... McGill kept upping his salary. Rutherford always had a shift in mind, but only to Britain in order to be nearer the main centres of science, and to have access to more Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции...., and better, research students.


Manchester


Professor Schuster of Manchester University inherited a large fortune so offered to step down from his chair if Rutherford would accept the position. He would. Transferring there in 1907 he Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... showed convincingly what he had long suspected, namely that the alpha particle was a helium atom stripped of its electrons. He and an assistant, Hans Geiger, developed the electrical method of tirelessly Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... detecting single particles emitted by radioactive atoms, the Rutherford-Geiger detector. With this he could determine important physical constants such as Avogadro's number, the number of atoms or molecules in one Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... gramme-mole of material.

While at McGill Rutherford had noted that a narrow beam of alpha particles became fuzzy on passing through a thin sheet of mica. Now he set Geiger to measuring Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... the relative numbers of alpha particles as a function of scattering angle. Geiger also had the responsibility of training undergraduates in techniques relevant to radioactivity measurements. When Geiger reported to Rutherford Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... that an undergraduate student, Ernest Marsden, was ready for a project of his own, Rutherford set him the task of investigating whether any alpha particles were reflected from metals. Marsden found that some Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... alpha rays were scattered directly backwards, even from a thin film of gold. It was, a surprised Rutherford stated, as if one had fired a large naval shell at a piece of Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... tissue paper and it had bounced back.

In 1911, Rutherford deduced from these results that almost all of the mass of an atom, an object so small that it would take over five million Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... of them side-by-side to cross a full stop on this page, is concentrated in a nucleus a thousand times smaller than the atom itself. (If the orbital electrons Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... in our atoms were compressed into the nucleus we would occupy the space of a small grain of sand.) The nuclear model of the atom had been born. This second great Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... discovery gave him enduring fame.

A young Dane, Neils Bohr, was attracted to work with Rutherford after having seen him in jovial mood whilst being feted at a Cavendish Laboratory dinner. Bohr placed Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... the electrons in stable formation around the atomic nucleus. The Rutherford-Bohr atom features in chemistry and physics books used world-wide and Rutherford scattering is still used today to probe sub-nuclear particles Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... and the structure of micro-electronic devices.


War Work


Rutherford was knighted in the 1914 New Years Honours list and visited Australia and New Zealand for a scientific meeting and for a family reunion Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции..... War was declared just before he reached Australia. After a three month visit to New Zealand Rutherford returned to Britain where he worked on acoustic methods of detecting submarines for the British Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Admiralty's Board of Invention and Research. One of the Board's tasks was to evaluate all suggestions received. One involved using sea lions from a circus to see Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... if they could be used in detecting submarines.

Rutherford's only patent is from his development of a directional hydrophone and that was assigned to the Admiralty. When the Americans finally entered Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... the war in 1917 Sir Ernest Rutherford led the delegation to transfer submarine detection knowledge to them. He fruitlessly advised the American Government to use young scientists on problems associated with war work and to Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... not waste their lives and skills in the trenches. (One of his brightest students, Harry Moseley, on track for a Nobel Prize for his work on using X-rays to probe Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... the electronic structure of atoms, had been killed in Turkey.)

Near the end of the war Rutherford returned to the pursuit of non-war science. While playing marbles by bombarding light atoms with Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... alpha rays, he observed outgoing protons of energy larger than that of the incoming alpha particles. From this observation he correctly deduced that the bombardment had converted nitrogen atoms into oxygen Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... atoms. He thus became the world's first successful alchemist and the first person to split the atom, his third great claim to fame.





Cambridge II


In 1919 Rutherford became the Director of Cambridge University's Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Cavendish Laboratory. The following decade was one of consolidation, of setting up a first class research team and of tidying up loose ends. In 1925 Rutherford once more travelled out to Australia Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... and New Zealand to give public lectures and to visit ailing parents. He was then an imposing figure: tall, well-built and with bright blue eyes. The six-week tour of Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... New Zealand, his fourth and last visit to his homeland, was that of an international celebrity. Wherever he went he received цивик receptions and halls were packed to overflowing to hear him give illustrated Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... talks on the structure of the atom. Rutherford declared that he had always been very proud of being a New Zealander.

In his public pronouncements to the news media Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... he regularly encouraged the Goverment to reserve some of the most scenic parts of New Zealand for posterity and he supported education and research. In particular, he recommended that New Zealand scientists devote Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... special attention to researches of benefit to farmers. His support helped the establishment of New Zealand's Department of Scientific and Industrial Research in 1926.

The Rutherfords' daughter Eileen had married Ralph Fowler Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции...., a mathematical physicist at the Cavendish Laboratory. They had four children; Peter who became a distinguished cosmic ray physicist, Elizabeth a doctor, Patrick an electrical engineer monitoring safety at nuclear power plants and Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Ruth a research physiologist. Sadly, Eileen died of an embolism at age 29, nine days after the birth of her fourth child and just two days before Christmas of 1930.

This tragedy overshadowed Rutherford Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции....'s elevation to the peerage in the New Year's honours list for 1931, thus becoming Ernest, Lord Rutherford of Nelson. He chose to include in his coat of arms a Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Kiwi, a Maori Warrior and Hermes Trismegistus, the patron saint of knowledge and alchemists. His shield is quartered by the curves of the decay and growth of radioactivity. His latin motto, `Primordia Quaerere Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Rerum', (which translates as `To Seek the Nature of Things') was chosen from Lucretius' `On the Nature of the Universe'.

He spoke only twice in the House of Lords, on both occasions in support Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... of industrial research.

1932 was a vintage year for Rutherford and the Cavendish Laboratory. James Chadwick discovered the neutron. A decade earlier Rutherford had predicted it must exist and in the interim Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... had often mentioned to Chadwick what properties it must have.

In that same year John Cockcroft and Ernest Walton finally split the atom by entirely artificial means using protons, the nuclei of Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... hydrogen atoms, which had been accelerated to very high speeds in a high voltage accelerator. The age of big science had begun under Rutherford's guidance.

For years Rutherford had Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... assumed that to penetrate the nucleus of an atom one would need particles accelerated through a few million volts to match the energy with which particles were ejected from radioactive atoms. Hence for years Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... he had cajoled British industry to push development of high voltage sources. The breakthrough though came from George Gamow's application of quantum mechanics to show that lower energies would Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... be more efficient at penetrating the atomic nucleus.

After Cockcroft and Walton's success, Rutherford had Mark Oliphant build a lower voltage accelerator but with a much improved particle flux. Following the gift of heavy Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... hydrogen (dueterium) from Gilbert Lewis of Berkeley, they bombarded dueterium with deuterium and discovered tritium (H3 the third isotope of hydrogen) and the light isotope of helium (He3).


Statesman




Rutherford served Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... well his science, his laboratory, his university and his adopted country. He campaigned for Cambridge University to grant women the same privileges as men. He carried out regular public duties such as supporting Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... the freedom of the British Broadcasting Corporation from goverment censorship, served on its Panel of Advisors and gave regular radio talks on his work. While on the Board of Management of Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... the Commissioners of the Exhibition of 1851 he defended the award of scholarships to overseas universities. As Chairman of the Advisory Council of the British Department of Scientific and Industrial Research he advised Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... the British Government on scientific matters and opened many research laboratories. Most Sundays he played golf for recreation.

Rutherford was one of the first to determine that the energy involved in the Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... radioactive decay of an atom was millions of times that of a chemical bond and he was the first to be convinced that the energy was internal to all atoms. In Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... 1916, during the dark days of World War I, Rutherford stated that there was then no way that the energy of the atom could be extracted efficiently and he personally hoped that methods would not Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... be discovered until man was living at peace with his neighbours.

When Hitler rose to power in Germany in 1933 and commenced his non-Aryan policy, Lord Rutherford helped found, and Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... was President of, the Academic Assistance Council which aided displaced academics. This was to be one of the biggest mass migrations of scientists the world had seen and it began the transference Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... of the centre of science from Europe to America. As the clouds of war once more gathered over Europe, Rutherford presided over a meeting of the Cambridge University branch of the Democratic Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Front in which he мейд a case for an international ban on the use of aeroplanes in warfare. These aspects of his life's work are nigh forgotten but deserve greater recognition.


Legacy


Ernest Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Rutherford died aged 66 on the 19th of October 1937, the result of delays in operating on his partially stangulated umbilical hernia. His ashes were interred in London's Westminster Abbey, under an inscribed Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... flagstone near the choir screen in the Nave. When JJ Thomson died in 1940 he was interred next to Rutherford. Newton presides above them and they are surrounded by other greats of British science.

Lady Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Rutherford retired to Christchurch, New Zealand, where she died in 1954. Rutherford's medals, possibly the best assemblage of scientific medals in the world, were given to the University of Canterbury.

During his Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... lifetime Rutherford was awarded many scientific prizes and honorary degrees from many countries and Fellowships of many societies and organisations (such as the Royal College of Physicians and the Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Institution of Electrical Engineers). Among other honours he was elected President of the Royal Society (1926-30), President of the Institute of Physics (1931-3) and was decorated with the Order of Merit (1925).

Death did not stop Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... the public acclamation. Many buildings in many countries have been named in his honour. He has appeared on the stamps of four countries; Sweden (1968), Canada (1971), Russia (1971) and New Zealand (1971 and 2000). Curiously, he has Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... never featured on a British stamp. In 1991 the Rutherford Origin was built on the site of his birth in rural Nelson. It incorporates into a garden setting a permanent outdoor display Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... of information about his life and work and is open all hours. In November of 1992 he featured on the new NZ$100 banknote. Because it is the highest denomination banknote his image regularly Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... appears as background on TV news items, and TV and newspaper advertisments, involved with finance.

His discoveries are his real memorial. But forgotten is his humility in giving his co-workers Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... more than full credit. Whilst he was at Manchester he didn't put his name on a third of the papers reporting on radioactivity even though he initiated almost every investigation. Often he would Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... do the preliminary work then хэнд the topic to a student or colleague. He never put his name on Geiger and Marsden's paper announcing large angle scattering of alpha rays Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции...., nor on Chadwick's paper announcing the neutron, nor on Cockcroft and Wilson's paper announcing the splitting of the atom using a particle accelerator.

His humility should also be a memorial Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.....


Спорт


The All Blacks perform a haka before a match against France in 2006

Спорт has a major role in New Zealand's culture, with the unofficial national спорт of rugby union being particularly Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... influential. Other popular participatory sports include cricket, bowls, netball, soccer, motorsport, golf, swimming and tennis. New Zealand has strong international teams in several sports including rugby union, netball, cricket, rugby league, and softball. New Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Zealand also has traditionally done well in the sports of rowing, yachting and cycling. The country is internationally recognised for performing well on a medals-to-population ratio at Olympic Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... Games and Commonwealth Games.

Rugby union, commonly referred to as rugby, is closely linked to the country's national identity. The national rugby team, the All Blacks, has the best win Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... to loss record of any national team, and is well known for the haka (a traditional Māori challenge) performed before the start of international matches. Rugby league is also widely played in New Zealand. The Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... New Zealand Warriors compete in the Australian NRL competition, and in 2008 the national side, the Kiwis, won the Rugby League World Cup.

Cricket was introduced to New Zealand in Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... the 1800s and is reputedly the second most popular спорт in the country, with one source stating there are 98,000 registered cricket players. The New Zealand team is known as the Blackcaps and Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... the national women's team is the White Ferns.

Horse racing is a popular spectator спорт which has spawned such national icons as Cardigan Bay and Phar Lap, and was part of the Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... traditional "Rugby, Racing and Beer" culture.

New Zealand is also well known for its extreme sports and adventure tourism. Its reputation in extreme sports extends from the establishment of the world's first commercial Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... bungy jumping site at Queenstown in the South Island in November 1988. Mountaineering is also popular, with the country's most famous climber being the late Sir Edmund Hillary, jointly with Tenzing Norgay Culture - Методическое пособие адресовано студентам, изучающим английский язык для формирования языковой компетенции.... the first person to reach the summit of Mount Everest.

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