Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5


^ Critical Source Area Controls
Roseen et al. (2005) reviewed a procedure for normalized technology verification of structural and non-structural stormwater treatment practices, including manufactured treatment devices. The purpose was to evaluate the ability Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 of these stormwater treatment practices and to characterize performance trends.


Chen and Adams (2005) examined the use of storage facilities for urban stormwater quantity control to mitigate the negative impacts of high Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 stormwater discharges on receiving waters. The authors promoted the use of numerical modeling to determine the efficient size of these storage facilities to prevent either under-design or over-design. Phelps (2005) outlined the use of Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 ASCE’s Water-Quality Capture Volume methodology for sizing a StormvaultTM Mitigation System to meet the goal of stormwater treatment to the maximum extent practical. Anonymous (2005e) reported on the Development Concrete Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 Washout System, a watertight roll-off bin, which can be used to collect concrete washout material and runoff. Mazza (2005) reviewed the use of a StormGate and StormFilter device at a scrap Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 metal recycler in New Jersey to meet its discharge permit. The combination device was shown to be in compliance with the New Jersey stormwater management regulations. Kalli et al. (2005) described a steel Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 composite pipe that could be used for stormwater drainage and an application where it was installed. Sobelman et al. (2005) reviewed the work of the California Department of Transportation to develop, test Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 and finalize designs of trash-screening devices that can be installed in the existing storm drainage system. Gibbs (2005) reported on the use of CDS systems to improve the quality of stormwater runoff in the Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 Poplar Creek watershed.


Catch basin inserts were evaluated using simulated rainfall by Morgan et al. (2005) for their ability to remove TSS and TPH. Results indicated that the inserts were capable Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 of some removal of TSS and TPH. Kim et al. (2005d) examined the use of a metal membrane for filtering rainwater for reuse. The filterability was found to depend on the rainwater source Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5, nominal filter size, filtration conditions and operation mode. The major fouling mechanism was pore blockage. Martin et al. (2005) investigated the potential of nonwoven geotextiles to treat polluted runoff water. The Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 interior of the geotextile would contain a biomass that would aid in the degradation of the organic pollutants.


Jang et al. (2005) investigated the potential of using mulch to remove heavy metals from urban runoff Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5. Of the three mulches investigated, the hardwood bark mulch had the best physicochemical properties for adsorption of metal ions. Liu et al. (2005a) investigated the adsorption kinetics for urban runoff metals on composite Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5-oxide coated polymeric media. Metal ions with the highest adsorption affinity also were shown to have the highest rate constants. Observed porosity and the good model fit indicated a Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 complex adsorption mechanism. Rangsivek and Jekel (2005) investigated the use of zero-valent iron to remove dissolved metals from stormwater runoff treatment. Zero-valent iron was found to be comparable in terms of Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 removal ability and kinetics to commercial adsorbents such as ferric hydroxides. The concern for use with this media would be the surface formation of iron oxides. Sansalone and Teng (2005) studied the transient nature Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 of rainfall-runoff loadings delivered to a partial exfiltration reactor. A numerical model was used to simulate the effluent hydrograph of water flowing through the reactor. The use of calcium carbonate Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 to bind phosphate in ion exchange filtration was explored by Yanamadala (2005) for urban runoff in Los Angeles (California). Denitrification was also encouraged since ammonia interfered with the phosphate binding. The purpose of these activities Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 was to reduce the eutrophication of Madrona Marsh.


Pinto et al. (2005) studied a cement-based solidification/stabilization process for stormwater runoff solids residuals. Non-conventional differential thermal analysis was used to investigate Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 the early hydration stages of a Portland cement containing the raw residual, two fractions of the residual and two additives. The studied concern was that the residuals were still reactive and that the Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 reactivity would interfere with the stabilization and future use of residual-modified cement.


Bennett and Curtis (2001) tested a soil and vegetative contact treatment system (modified Howland Swale) for stormwater Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 runoff from a fuel cell manufacturing facility. It was designed to remove copper and zinc (and thus overall effluent toxicity) to the point where the toxicity guidelines for the daphnid, Daphnia pulex, were Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 met. The paper detailed the design and construction of the treatment system. To better understand the cost, maintenance requirements, and pollutant removal ability of sand filters, the California Department of Transportation Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 retrofitted five Austin-style and one Delaware-style sand filters in the Los Angeles and San Diego metropolitan areas (Barrett and Borroum 2001) at their maintenance yards and park-and-ride facilities. Contributing areas Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 averaged less than 0.7 ha. They had a relatively high cost of implementation, about $350,000/ha treated. Pollutant removal was comparable to the performance observed in various City of Austin studies. Average suspended Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 solids removal was 85%, total metals removal varied between 51% and 85%, while dissolved metals removal varied between 19% and 77%. Poor removal occurred for nutrients, especially nitrate, which was generally negative. No major maintenance has been required, although Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 evidence of clogging is beginning to appear.


Hird et al. (2001) tested a passive treatment system, called a sorptive buoyant media clarifier (SBMC), for highway-runoff treatment. Pollutant removal efficiencies approached 95% on a mass Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 basis total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity and particulate-bound chemical oxygen demand (COD), with the efficiencies not being affected by highly variable influents or extended periods of non-operation between Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 storms. Prototype treatment capacity, at breakthrough, was 1000 pore-volumes treated. Liu et al. (2001a) investigated the potential of manganese oxide coated polymeric media (MOPM) for urban stormwater runoff treatment. The adsorption onto Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 the MOPM was shown to be very sensitive to the pH, with the order of adsorption affinity on MOPM for the four divalent heavy metals studied being Pb(II) > Cu(II Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5) > Cd(II) > Zn(II). MOPM was seen to be a viable alternative adsorption medium for heavy metal removal in upflow filters, such as a SBMC. Further investigations of the surface of the MOPM (with Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 a specific gravity of less than 1) showed that the surface area increased from 0.05 m2/g (uncoated media) to 27 m2/g for the same media after oxide coating (Liu et al., 2001b Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5). The multiple-layer coatings enhanced filtration and adsorption of heavy metals. Investigation of materials (Liu et al., 2001c) with specific gravities greater than 1 demonstrated that cementitious materials could be coated effectively for use Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 in stormwater treatment devices. The increase in surface area resulting from coating sand was not as significant as it was for the coating of the cementitious materials.


Pitt et al. (2001) reported Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 on the results of laboratory-scale investigations into of upflow filtration as a means of increasing the run times of traditional stormwater filters (which tend to clog rapidly due to the small size of Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 particles in urban runoff). Using laboratory-scale columns (4.8-cm inner diameter (ID)), a power equation to model downflow filtration was demonstrated. However, the coefficients for the laboratory sand filter were significantly Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 different from those of the Lakewood, CO sand filters reported by Urbonas. Testing with a larger diameter column has been performed. Comparison of the two clogging tests indicated that a Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 significant scale-up effect exists. Clark et al. (2001b) investigated the ability of filter media to retain previously-trapped pollutants under aerobic conditions, as would be expected if the filters were operated in an Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 upflow mode. Permanent retention of heavy metals occurred even in an anaerobic environment. However, retention of nutrients did not occur. These results showed that aerobic conditions must be maintained in the Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 media if nutrient removal and retention is important. The permanent retention of the heavy metals indicated that upflow filtration may be feasible where the primary stormwater pollutants are metals.


The use of jute Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 and mulch as filtration media for stormwater runoff treatment was investigated by Wojtenkio et al. (2001b). The effectiveness depended on the physical characteristics of the media. Both the sand content and the Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 particle size of the filter media affected stormwater flowrates and the media’s pollutant removal capacities. Removals as high as 100 % of copper (Cu) were observed for both mulch or jute. The removal of Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) depended on the media-to-sand ratios and ranged from 68 to 94%. Brown et al. (2001) assessed the use of kudzu (Pueraria lobata ohwi) as a Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 medium for of copper, cadmium, and zinc removal from low concentration waters. Kudzu was an effective adsorbent for heavy metals. Although its capacity for metals removal is less than commercial-grade ion-exchange resins Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5, kudzu could be used at much lower cost, and may be useful in treating dilute mixed-matrix metal wastestreams, such as urban runoff, where the application of resins is not practical Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5. Davis et al. (2001b) investigated laboratory-scale bioretention facilities to treat urban runoff. The roles of the soil, mulch, and plants for the removal of heavy metals and nutrients were evaluated. Reductions of Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 specific metal removals ranged from 15 to 145 mg/m3 per event. Moderate reductions of TKN, ammonium, and phosphorus levels were found (60 to 80%). Little nitrate was removed, with nitrate production noted in several cases Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5. The mulch later in metal removal was found to be important.


Five sets of field test results of the Storm and Groundwater Enhancement System (SAGES) device were presented by Koustas Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 and VanEgmond (2001). The SAGES device, a three-stage filtering system designed to be retrofitted to existing catchbasins/stormwater inlets, consisted of three separate filtering sacks consisting of gravel on top, sand Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 in the middle, and granulated activated carbon on the bottom. The testing showed that the highest removal efficiencies occurred in conjunction with elevated influent suspended solids concentrations. Washout from the modified catchbasin appeared Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 to contribute to increased effluent suspended solids concentrations that clogged the SAGES filter sacks.


In their paper, Cairo and Pujol (2000) advocated the use of membranes and biofilters for urban wastewater treatment. They demonstrated that Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 the membrane and bio-filters produce a high quality effluent during both dry- and wet-weather flows. Lau et al. (2000) demonstrated that biofilters, even with a biofilm as young as three days Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5, is capable of providing good removal efficiencies for both dissolved and sediment-adsorbed metals. During the nine-week operating of a laboratory-scale biofilter, 90% of the total Cu and Zn were removed Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5. Field-testing of a submerged, aerobic biofilter for the treatment of stormwater runoff was reported by Mothersill et al. (2000). They found that the biofilter removed 97% of the suspended solids in the runoff Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5; however, the suspended solids accumulation interfered with the nutrient removal through bacterial assimilation. Removal efficiencies of 64% for ammonia nitrogen were seen throughout the life of the filter. Backwashing to Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 remove sediment was found not to be sufficient to maintain optimal biological filtration conditions.


Stormwater runoff contains a greater variety of pollutants than sanitary wastewater including such priority pollutants as benzene, PAH, pesticides Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 and toxic heavy metals (Fan et al., 1998). These pollutants are usually associated with particles < 50 m which are difficult to remove using standard WWF sedimentation technologies, however, advanced sedimentation systems have shown Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 effectiveness for removing such particles. Biological leaching was proposed as a method to treat urban stormwater sediments contaminated with trace metals. An iron oxidizing bacteria indigenous to the sediment removed soluble Cu (64% solubilization Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5) and Zn (98% solubilization) in laboratory and pilot-scale experiments (Anderson et al., 1998). Lainé et al. (1998) provide a treatment system for urban stormwater designed to meet treated water standards suitable for bathing.

Filtration Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5/sorption
Boving and Zhang (2004) investigated the use of aspen wood fibers to remove PAHs from stormwater runoff. Batch and column studies demonstrated that aspen wood has the potential to become an effective remedial Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 agent for PAH in stormwater runoff or other PAH contaminated waters. Min et al. (2004) researched the removal of cadmium from solution using a base-treated juniper fiber. Compared to untreated Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 juniper fiber, the base-treated fiber showed substantial improvement in removal ability.


Clark et al. (2004a and 2004b) reviewed the WERF-funded project that investigated the use of media filtration to remove Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 heavy metals from stormwater runoff. The metals of interest for the research were zinc, iron, copper and a small amount of particulate-bound lead. Effluent concentrations below 10 – 15 μg/L for all metals were not Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 achievable. A TCLP evaluation of the used media indicated that in most urban runoff applications, media disposal would not be as a hazardous waste. The complete report, which also contains information on Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 the use of swales for stormwater treatment, was published by WERF in 2004 (Johnson et al. 2004). Incorporation of these results with particle association research was presented by Pitt et al. (2004e Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 and 2004f). Part of the earlier research focused on upflow filtration. This work was further developed and presented in Pratap et al. (2004). This project showed that upflow filters appeared to have a longer life Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 at an acceptable TSS removal efficiency than conventional downflow filters due to the postponing of filter clogging.


Delolme et al. (2004) investigated the fate of heavy metals in stormwater sand filters Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 when introduced in the presence of low complexing organic compounds such as acetate. Compared to a no-acetate experiment, zinc retardation was increased and the maximum outlet concentration decreased with increasing pH and acetate concentration Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5. Marx et al. (2004) reported on the testing of catch-basin inserts and cartridge filters to treat stormwater runoff at the Port of Seattle’s Seattle-Tacoma International Airport. The paper reviewed Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 the monitoring scheme and the preliminary monitoring results. Tobiason (2004) investigated the potential of Downspout Stormfilter units to treat the dissolved zinc from rooftop runoff at the Port of Seattle’s Sea-Tac Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 airport. Peat and leaf compost media were capable of removing 81% and 76% of the dissolved zinc, respectively.


Liu et al. (2004) reviewed the laboratory testing of oxide coated buoyant media for its removal to remove Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 heavy metals from stormwater runoff. The results showed that a thin coating of manganese oxide improved the adsorption capacity of the media. This media was then used in an Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 in situ partial exfiltration reactor (PER). Sansalone and Teng (2004) demonstrated that the PER was effective at treating highway runoff. The results showed that the PER could reduce the quantity of runoff as Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 well as at improving the quality of the runoff water. In addition, Teng and Sansalone (2004a and 2004b) demonstrated that the PER was capable of removing 71 to 96% of the solids, measured as a mass Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5-based concentration, and 92 – 99%, measured as a number-based concentration.


Woodhouse and Duff (2004) investigated the use of an aerobic trickling filter to treat stormwater runoff from a log yard. Twenty-four Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5-hour treatment at lower temperatures, 24 and 5o C, reduced BOD concentrations by 97 and 76%, COD by 91 and 64%, and tannins & lignins by 95 and 67%, respectively.


Aldheimer and Bennerstedt (2003) reviewed the methods used by the Stockholm Water Company Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 to treat stormwater runoff from various land uses. The City of Stockholm in 2000 arranged a competition for improved stormwater treatment technologies.


Alper (2003) investigated the removals of oils and organics from wastewaters, including Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 stormwater, using MYCELX HRM (Hydrocarbon Removal Matrix). MYCELX HRM filters physiochemically captured and immobilized oils and organic compounds rapidly with negligible Δ P and minimal contact time (typically less than one second Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5). Abdel-Fattah et al. (2003) investigated the use of activated carbon, molecular sieves and naturally-occurring zeolites to remove lead from stormwater runoff from small arms ranges at Barksdale AFB, LA. The Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 relative rate for lead adsorption was: molecular sieve13X > chabazite > clinoptilolite > molecular sieve 5A > activated carbon.


Barrett (2003) investigated the performance of five Austin-style sand filters constructed by the California Department of Transportation (CALTRANS Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5). Linear-regression analysis indicated that for sediment and almost all particle-associated constituents, effluent concentration was independent of influent concentration. Rejuvenation of the filter bed was required at three sites after 3 years of Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 operation when the solids loading to the system was between 5 and 7.5 kg/m2 of filter area. Johnson et al. (2003) investigated the potential of filter media and grass swales to remove heavy metals Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 from typical urban runoff. The filters proved effective at removing influent concentrations down to a level of approximately 10 – 15 µg/L. Removals to concentrations lower than that were not possible Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 on a consistent basis.


Anonymous (2003d) reported on the use of the DownSpout StormFilter system to treat galvanized roof runoff at a plating company in Portland, OR. Kimura et al. (2003) presented a Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 porous polypropylene (PPL) media for use in highway stormwater treatment filters. Using artificial highway runoff with constant flow and SS concentration, results of 70% or more of SS removal with 5 mm/hr and Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 50% or more with 10 mm/hr were obtained. COD removal efficiency was about 90% of SS removal efficiency. Landers (2003c) reviewed Western Kentucky University’s installation of a stormwater treatment system to filter floodwater Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 prior to diverting it to a cave system beneath the university. Vortechs filtration units were selected as the filtration setup. de Ridder et al. (2003) investigated the influence of flow rate and media Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 gradation on the cost-effective design of stormwater filtration stormwater treatment practices containing perlite to remove TSS. The results indicated that media gradation and filtration rate acted synergistically to affect removal performance Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5.


Anonymous (2003e) reviewed the incorporation of a stormwater treatment train into the expansion of airport facilities at Newark Liberty International Airport. The result is that water discharged from the units into the perimeter ditch is Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 free of most of the solids and debris carried in stormwater, and the oil is reduced to 10 parts per million. Anonymous (2003f) presented the Moore Creek Stormwater Facility, a combination Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 of detention ponds and a large underground storage tank that were designed to treat airport runoff. This treatment facility was installed at the new developments owned Greater Toronto Airports Authority.


Buchholz Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 (2003) presented the living roof at Форд’s Rouge River complex. The living roof is composed of a sedum grass-like blanket that reduces storm-water runoff, doubles the roof's lifespan, and Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 insulates the final assembly area, generating an estimated 5 percent savings in energy costs.


Ray et al. (2002) evaluated the treatment of stormwater by filtering the runoff through natural organic materials. The results demonstrated Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 that the fluxes through pure media were higher than those through a traditional sand bed, and that mixtures of the media with sand had fluxes that decreased as the sand quantity increased. Clark Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 et al. (2002a). performed an initial evaluation on the effectiveness of upflow filtration to treat stormwater runoff. The results demonstrated that upflow filtration likely would provide longer filter run times. A concurrent Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 study by Clark et al. (2002b) evaluated the effect on pollutant retention if stormwater filters of peat moss, activated carbon, sand, or a municipal leaf compost go anaerobic. Permanent retention of Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 heavy metals, but not nutrients, was found during the studies.


Ellard et al. (2002) evaluated the potential of using direct filtration for wet-weather flows at sewage treatment plants or for SSO and CSO treatment Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5. The filters were able to achieve near secondary effluent quality on suspended solids, CBOD and other contaminants and an innovative rapid backwashing technique was developed to clean the filters in order to Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 handle the peak flows. Kang et al. (2002) presented a unique design for a municipal wastewater treatment plant equipped to deal with wet-weather flows (and operating data for 2000) where sand Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 filters were used to filter an enhanced primary effluent and an activated carbon adsorber was used to polish the filter effluent prior to chlorination.


Treatment of runoff containing copper from roads and roofs Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 by a special adsorber мейд from granulate iron-hydroxide and calcium carbonate was proposed by Boller and Steiner (2002). The results of testing of this adsorption trench showed average copper reductions of 96 – 99%. Tramonte et Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 al. (2002) studied the transport and treatability of entrained particulate matter from elevated transportation infrastructure by rainfall-runoff. The passive treatment device of interest was adopted from in-situ adsorptive-filtration Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 systems that had been installed to treat storm water from an elevated section of Interstate 10 in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. Results indicate pollutant removal efficiencies of greater than 90% could be realized for total suspended solids Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 (TSS), turbidity and total chemical oxygen demand (COD). Removal efficiencies were not affected by a highly variable influent composition or extended periods of non-operation between storms. Approximately 1000 pore-volumes Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 were treated and breakthrough of TSS and COD mass in the clarifier effluent nor excessive head loss across the adsorptive-filter media clarifier was observed, indicating treatment capacity has not been exceeded.


Davison et Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 al. (2002) reported on the ongoing ETV verification of a hydrocarbon control stormwater treatment practice, the Hydro-Kleen™ Filtration System, which was designed for use with storm water catch basins and area drains to Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 trap hydrocarbons, metals, sediments, and other storm water and surface runoff constituents. Testing consists of challenging the device with wastewater spiked with constituents the device claims to treat, as well as constituents Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 that could have an effect on the devices treatment capabilities. By completing this ETV testing, NSF anticipates verifying the efficacy of the device will also validate the use of Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 laboratory testing procedures as a method of obtaining reliable data with 'real world' implications and uses.


Sansalone and Hird (2000) reported the results of a prototype partial exfiltration reactor (PER) to remove metals such Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 as lead, cadmium, copper, nickel, zinc and chromium from stormwater runoff. The PER proved effective at removing these metals from the runoff influent. Clark (2000) conducted a pilot-scale study on the ability Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 of several potential filtration media for treating pre-settled urban stormwater runoff. The results of the study showed that modeling pollutant removal in traditional pre-settled stormwater runoff will be difficult because Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 the low concentrations of many pollutants are near the removal limit of many of the filters. Clark also investigated modeling equations for the removal of solids by filtration from stormwater runoff Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5. The model equations that fit the data were similar to the power loading equation proposed for the sand filters in Lakewood, Colorado. This project also investigated the effects of anaerobic conditions on pollutant removal by Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 four of the media: activated carbon, sand, compost and peat moss. The results were that most of the previously-sorbed metals would not be released if the water in the filter Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 turned anaerobic; however, many of the nutrients would be released and washed off the filter during the next storm event.


Sala and Hensch (2000) tested the ability of silica micro encapsulation Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 (SME) for the treatment metals-contaminated wastewater. They found that the technology has potential and they proposed that it could be used to treat stormwater runoff such as by injecting it into a runoff flow Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 stream. The end result was that the metals were permanently stabilized and the SME material could be disposed of properly once its capacity was exhausted. Wigginton and Lenhart (2000) reported Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 the results of using an iron-infused resin for the removal of phosphorus from stormwater runoff. Testing of the iron-infused resin in the Stormfilter cartridge showed 38.6% removal of dissolved phosphorus, 44.9% for total phosphorus and Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 78.6% for total suspended solids. Increased removals were observed between test cycles, indicating that increased oxidation of the iron occurred which provided additional sites for phosphorus adsorption.


Sansalone (1999) conducted detailed tests of Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 a partial exfiltration trench (PET) for passively treating highway runoff at a test site in Cincinnati, Ohio. Runoff treatment in the PET occurred primarily by sorption and filtration. Media in the PET Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 was expected to last more than 10 years. The mass pollutant removal efficiency generally exceeded 80% during the one year of tests. Exfiltration from the PET to clayey glacial till soils also exceeded 30% for some Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 runoff events. Stephenson et al. (1999) also described a pilot-scale stormwater runoff treatment system for highway runoff that used peat, sand, and rock to remove contaminants by sedimentation, filtration, and Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 adsorption. Field-testing sites were located in Knoxville, Tennessee, and Frederick, Maryland. The primary goal of this investigation was the development and evaluation of practical remedial measures for treating highway runoff draining Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 into sinkholes, where very rapid movement of surface runoff to the groundwater can occur. Urbonas (1999) presented a detailed description of the design approaches needed for effective sand filtration of stormwater. The approach uses Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 the unit processes known to exist in urban stormwater runoff and within filter devices. The suggested design was based on hydraulic capacity of the filter media, which, in turn, was Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 a function of the total suspended solids removed by the filter. Shibata (1999) reported on the performance characteristics of pipe installations with replaceable filters. The data collected included information on the quantity of sand and Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 gravel trapped in the filter section, as well as the ability of the filter to concentrate pollutants from stormwater runoff.


A system that included settling tanks, sand and carbon filters Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5, and an ion exchange unit treated stormwater runoff from an airport prior to infiltration (Vivona et al., 1998). A laboratory and parking lot investigation showed that porous pavements significantly reduced the volume of stormwater runoff Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5, as well as the concentrations of undesirable constituents in stormwater. Asphalt pavement had increased petroleum products (e.g, phenols) possibly due to the interaction of acid rain with the asphalt Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 pavement (James and Shahin,1998). Laboratory experiments conducted over the past three years showed that activated carbon, peat moss, zeolite, and compost were efficient at removing toxicants such as organics and metals from the stormwater runoff Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 and retaining them during subsequent flushings with distilled water (Clark et al., 1998a). Sand was found to effectively remove toxicants from runoff, but then released them in subsequent flushings. Field experiments Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 evaluated several filtration media for stormwater infiltration and treatment potential (Clark et al., 1998b). An activated carbon and sand mixture showed the best overall removal, though a recommendation for settling Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 of runoff prior to filtration is given. A two dimensional model was developed to assist in the design of infiltration systems for stormwater management (Guo, 1998). The model revised the Federal Aviation Administration method to Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 predict the detention storage volume by maximizing the volume difference between the design storm runoff and the basin infiltration rate.


A filter with humic media was discussed for the treatment for stormwater runoff Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 (Kratch, 1997b). The media, which contains a processed leaf compost, removes 90% of SS, 85% of oils and grease, and 98% of metals.

^ Treatment train systems
Annadurai et al. (2002) presented the factorial design Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 analysis for turbidity and humic acid removal from stormwater using polyaluminum chloride (PACl) as a coagulant. The response surface method along with the Box-Behnken design of experiments was adopted to investigate the Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 effects of pH, turbidity, and alkalinity of the suspension, the PACI dosage, and the dosed amount of humic acid. The PACI dosage was the most significant variable for turbidity removal, while Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 that for humic acid removal was the suspension pH. A compromise will be needed to produce both large and loose flocs.


Greenway et al. (2002) monitored the spatial and temporal changes in Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 stormwater quality through a series of treatment trains. The case study evaluated the performance of several devices in a ‘treatment train,’ including a sediment basin, constructed wetland, pond, CDS unit, ECOSOL unit Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5, natural riparian wetland and a 600 m length of natural stream channel. The study showed that during a storm event there was little reduction in the concentration of total suspended solids throughout the Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 treatment train due to limited detention time, however there was a decrease in soluble nutrients. The sediment basin, wetland, pond and riparian vegetation were all effective in removing these nutrients. The existing 600 m natural Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 stream, lagoons and associated vegetation were effective at removing sediment and nutrients to achieve Water Quality Objectives of 15 mg/L TSS, 0.65 mg/L TN and 0.07 mg/L TP, at the Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 end of the treatment train.


Pitt (1996) discussed the utility of the SLAMM stormwater quality model in designing watershed-scale pollution reductions and evaluated technologies for control of stormwater, such as catchbasin retrofit devices Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5, a multichambered treatment train (MCTT) for critical source areas, and different filtration media. The Multi-Chambered Treatment Train (MCTT) was developed for removal of stormwater toxicants from critical source controls (Pitt et al Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5.,1999). The MCTT was an underground device that has three main chambers: an initial grit chamber for trapping of the largest sediment and release of most volatile compounds; a main settling chamber (providing Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 initial aeration and sorbent pillows) for the trapping of fine sediment and associated toxicants and floating hydrocarbons; and a sand and peat mixed media “filter” (sorption-ion exchange) unit for Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 the reduction of filterable toxicants. A typical MCTT requires between 0.5 and 1.5% of the paved drainage area, which was about one-third of the area required for a well-designed wet detention pond. The research report Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 described extensive development of the MCTT, including much stormwater treatability information that can be used by others who want to enhance performance of conventional stormwater control devices. A pilot-scale unit Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 was tested in Birmingham, Alabama, at a large parking lot. During monitoring of 13 storms, the MCTT was found to have the following overall median reduction rates: 96% for total toxicity, 98% for filtered toxicity Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5, 83% for SS, 60% for COD, 40% for turbidity, 100% for lead, 91% for zinc, 100% for n-Nitro-di-n-proplamine, 100% for pyrene, and 99% for bis (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalate (Pitt et al., 1998b). Corsi et al Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5. (1999) reported the results of a full-scale test of the MCTT at a public works yard in Mileaukee, WI, conducted by the USGS and the WDNR. Monitoring of 68 common and toxic constituents was conducted Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 during 15 storms having rain depths ranging from 0.17 to 1.4 inches in depth, over a five-month period. Very high reductions were found for all particulate-associated pollutants (reductions of 98% for SS, 88% for Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 total phosphorus, and 91% for total ZN, for example), and somewhat less reductions for dissolved pollutant fractions (13% TDS, 78% dissolved phosphorus, and 68% for dissolved ZN, for example). The WI DNR also conducted a full-scale Critical Source Area Controls - Annotated Bibliography of Urban Wet Weather Flow Literature from 1996 through 200 5 test of an MCTT at a 4-acre municipal parking lot at Minocqua, in northern Wisconsin, with similar high level removals noted.

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