B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000



^ B. Communication

    1. 1. Use communication to organize and clarify their mathematical thinking.

      • • Reading and writing

      • • Discussion, listening, and questioning

  1. 2. Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others, both orally and in writing B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000.

  2. 3. Analyze and evaluate the mathematical thinking and strategies of others.

  3. 4. Use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely.


C. Connections

  1. 1. Recognize recurring themes across mathematical domains (e.g., patterns in B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 number, algebra, and geometry).

  2. 2. Use connections among mathematical ideas to explain concepts (e.g., two linear equations have a unique solution because the lines they represent intersect at a single B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 point).

  3. 3. Recognize that mathematics is used in a variety of contexts outside of mathematics.

  4. 4. Apply mathematics in practical situations and in other disciplines.

  5. 5. Trace the development of mathematical concepts over time and across B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 cultures (cf. world languages and social studies standards).

  6. 6. Understand how mathematical ideas interconnect and build on one another to produce a coherent whole.


D. Reasoning

  1. 1. Recognize that mathematical facts, procedures, and claims B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 must be justified.

  2. 2. Use reasoning to support their mathematical conclusions and problem solutions.

  3. 3. Select and use various types of reasoning and methods of proof.

  4. 4. Rely on reasoning, rather than answer B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 keys, teachers, or peers, to check the correctness of their problem solutions.

    1. 5. Make and investigate mathematical conjectures.

      • • Counterexamples as a means of disproving conjectures

      • • Verifying conjectures using informal reasoning or proofs.

  5. 6. Evaluate examples of mathematical B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 reasoning and determine whether they are valid.


E. Representations

    1. 1. Create and use representations to organize, record, and communicate mathematical ideas.

      • • Concrete representations (e.g., base-ten blocks or algebra B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 tiles)

      • • Pictorial representations (e.g., diagrams, charts, or tables)

      • • Symbolic representations (e.g., a formula)

      • • Graphical representations (e.g., a line graph)

  1. 2. Select, apply, and translate among mathematical representations to solve problems.

  2. 3. Use representations B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 to model and interpret physical, social, and mathematical phenomena.


F. Technology

  1. 1. Use technology to gather, analyze, and communicate mathematical information.

  2. 2. Use computer spreadsheets, software, and graphing utilities to organize and display B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 quantitative information.

  3. 3. Use graphing calculators and computer software to investigate properties of functions and their graphs.

  4. 4. Use calculators as problem-solving tools (e.g., to explore patterns, to validate solutions).

  5. 5. Use B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 computer software to make and verify conjectures about geometric objects.

  6. 6. Use computer-based laboratory technology for mathematical applications in the sciences.


New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards for Science

INTRODUCTION

The Vision

The B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 New Jersey Core Curriculum Content Standards for Science reflect the belief that all students can and must learn enough science to assume their role as concerned citizens, equipped with necessary information and B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 decision-making skills.

The need for scientific literacy in today's increasingly technological world, for fundamental reforms in how science is taught, and for established standards in science education are by now well known B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 and documented. Presidential appeals for excellence, combined with expressions of concern from scientists and educators, have led to national, state, and local initiatives. New Jersey is host to an impressive B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 array of scientific and technological industries, and should play a leadership role in the development and implementation of standards for the teaching and learning of science.

The Core Curriculum Content Standards B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 for Science are influenced by certain understandings, events, and principles in the continuing improvement of science education in New Jersey and the nation. Efforts to establish standards for the teaching and learning of science have B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 been pursued actively at the state and national level. In 1993, Benchmarks for Science Literacy was published by the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), followed in 1994 by B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 a comprehensive draft of the National Science Education Standards (NSES) by the National Research Council. Both of these documents contributed to an ongoing interest in the formulation of world-class educational standards rooted in B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 reform movements such as Project 2061 of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, and the Scope, Sequence and Coordination Project of the National Science Teachers Association. The simultaneously emerging national B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 standards presented a reliable model that was often consulted in the formulation of the original New Jersey science standards.

In New Jersey, the call for science education standards was heightened when the State was B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 awarded a grant from the National Science Foundation for the establishment of a Statewide Systematic Initiative (NJ SSI) for the reform of mathematics, science, and technology education. The combined funding B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 of the NJ SSI and the Mid-Atlantic Eisenhower Consortium for Math and Science Education мейд possible the widespread distribution of an initial draft of science standards during the 1994-95 school year B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000.

Following extensive public exposure and review, the science standards along with those for other subjects and a newly formulated set of Cross Content Workplace Readiness Standards were adopted by the State Board of Education as B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 New Jersey’s Core Curriculum Content Standards in May of 1996.

^ Revised Standards

Concurrent with the adoption of the standards themselves was a mandate that they be regularly reviewed, and revised B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 if necessary, every five years. This process began for the science standards during the winter of 2000-2001, when a review committee was organized to oversee the revision process.

Much had occurred since the 1996 adoption as B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 New Jersey was joined by nearly every state in the nation in formulating rigorous academic standards as part of a growing national interest in educational reform. This resulted in the availability of B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 several nationwide surveys that acknowledged the excellence of our science standards but more importantly served to inform the committee’s careful review of those standards. Particularly useful were a comprehensive B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 research project conducted by the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO) that provided a framework for the benchmarking of the New Jersey standards and a detailed assessment of our science B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 standards reported by Achieve, Inc., an independent, bipartisan, nonprofit organization founded at the 1996 National Education Summit. Additionally, the revisions have benefited from the ongoing work of the organizations that were at the forefront of B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 the science standards movement, particularly the Atlas for Science Literacy published by AAAS in 2001.

An enormous amount of scientific content has accumulated at an accelerating rate over the years, causing B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 textbooks to thicken as material is added but rarely deleted. Science educators across the nation have come to recognize this as a disturbing and counterproductive trend. The science standards in this section, therefore B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000, are not intended to include all of science, but rather are an attempt to define what all students should understand and be able to apply as they grow towards scientific literacy B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000. A guiding principle of these standards is that an understanding of fundamental scientific principles and the development of science-related skills are not limited by gender, economic status, cultural background, or ability. While we B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 recognize the need for the inclusion of fundamental understandings in the life, earth and space, and physical sciences, the development of critical thinking skills is considered of paramount importance. Also important B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 are safe practices, the attitudes students display as they learn science, and the development of qualities inherent in the practice of science, such as curiosity, skepticism, open-mindedness, and honesty when collecting B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 and interpreting findings. While these habits of mind cannot be measured easily, no science program can be considered complete or successful that does not promote them.

Science should be taught at all levels B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 with awareness of its connection to other subjects and the needs of society. While these standards do not suggest a specific curriculum design or sequence of courses, they assume that the relationship B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 of the various disciplines of science to each other, and of science to the overall learning experience, will be strongly emphasized. The grade clustering system implemented in the current version of the B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 standards reflects developmental appropriateness of the content and skills to provide guidance for developmentally appropriate implementation. The standards also reflect the needs of the students and teachers of New Jersey B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000; indeed, incorporating New Jersey's unique natural resources in the teaching of science should be a primary goal of school districts as they move towards implementation.

The formulation of standards does not B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 ensure their proper implementation. The NSES mentioned above includes standards that address the preparation of science teachers as well as the school environment in which science is taught. While New Jersey standards B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 are not intended to deal with such issues, these issues must be considered if the standards are to be realized. The standards are only of value if they are part of a larger, ongoing B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 effort to improve the teaching and learning of science in New Jersey schools. Defining scientific literacy for the citizens of New Jersey is an important first step toward achieving this goal.

^ Standards B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 and Strands

There are 10 standards, each of which has a number of identified strands. These standards and their associated strands are listed below:

5.1 Scientific Processes

A. Habits of Mind

B. Inquiry and Problem B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Solving

C. Safety

^ 5.2 Science and Society

A. Cultural Contributions

B. Historical Perspectives

5.3 Mathematical Applications

A. Numerical Operations

B. Geometry and Measurement

C. Patterns and Algebra

D. Data Analysis and Probability

^ 5.4 Nature and B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Process of Technology

A. Science and Technology

B. Nature of Technology

C. Technological Design

5.5 Life Science

A. Matter, Energy, and Organization in Living Systems

B. Diversity and Biological Evolution

C. Reproduction and B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Heredity

^ 5.6 Physical Science – Chemistry

A. Structure and Properties of Matter

B. Chemical Reactions

5.7 Physical Science – Physics

A. Motion and Forces

B. Energy Transformations

5.8 Earth Science

A. Earth’s Properties and Materials B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

B. Atmosphere and Weather

C. Processes that Shape the Earth

D. How We Study the Earth

^ 5.9 Astronomy and Space Science

A. Earth, Moon, Sun System

B. Solar System

C. Stars B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000

D. Galaxies and Universe

5.10 Environmental Studies

A. Natural Systems and Interactions

B. Human Interactions and Impact

References

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (2001). ^ Atlas of science literacy. American Association for the Advancement of Science B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 and National Science Teachers Association, Washington, D.C.

American Association for the Advancement of Science. (1993). Benchmarks for science literacy. Oxford University Press, New York.

American Association for the Advancement B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 of Science. (1989). Project 2061. Oxford University Press, New York.

International Technology Education Association (2000). ^ Standards for technological literacy. International Technology Education Association

National Research Council. (1996). National science education standards. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.

National B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 Science Teachers Association. (1992). Scope, sequence and coordination of secondary school science, vol. 1. National Science Teachers Association, Washington, DC.

STANDARD 5.1 (SCIENTIFIC PROCESSES) ALL STUDENTS WILL DEVELOP PROBLEM-SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING AND INQUIRY SKILLS B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000, REFLECTED BY FORMULATING USABLE QUESTIONS AND HYPOTHESES, PLANNING EXPERIMENTS, CONDUCTING SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATIONS, INTERPRETING AND ANALYZING DATA, DRAWING CONCLUSIONS, AND COMMUNICATING RESULTS.

Descriptive Statement: Students best learn science by doing science. Science B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 is not merely a collection of facts and theories but a process, a way of thinking about and investigating the world in which we live. This standard addresses those skills that B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 are used by scientists as they discover and explain the physical universe-skills that are an essential and ongoing part of learning science.

Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators

By the end of Grade 4, students will B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000:

A. Habits of Mind

1.

Raise questions about the world around them and be willing to seek answers through




making careful observations and experimentation.

2.

Keep records that describe observations, carefully distinguish B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 actual observations from




ideas and speculations, and are understandable weeks and months later.

3.

Recognize that when a science investigation is replicated, very similar results are




expected.

4.

Know that when solving a problem B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 it is important to plan and get ideas and help from




other people.


B. Inquiry and Problem Solving

  1. 1. Develop strategies and skills for information–gathering and problem-solving, using appropriate tools and technologies B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000.

  2. 2. Identify the evidence used in an explanation.


C. Safety

  1. 1. Recognize that conducting science activities requires an awareness of potential hazards and the need for safe practices.

  2. 2. Understand and practice safety procedures for conducting B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 science investigations.


Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will:

A. Habits of Mind

1.

Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of data, claims B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000, and arguments.

2.

Communicate experimental findings to others.

3.

Recognize that the results of scientific investigations are seldom exactly the same and




that replication is often necessary.




167


4. Recognize that curiosity, skepticism, open-mindedness, and honesty are B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 attributes of scientists.

^ B. Inquiry and Problem Solving

1.

Identify questions and make predictions that can be addressed by conducting




investigations.

2.

Design and conduct investigations incorporating the use of a control.

3.

Collect, organize B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000, and interpret the data that result from experiments.


C. Safety

  1. 1. Know when and how to use appropriate safety equipment with all classroom materials.

  2. 2. Understand and practice safety procedures for conducting science investigations B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000.


Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will:

A. Habits of Mind

1.

When making decisions, evaluate conclusions, weigh evidence, and recognize B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 that




arguments may not have equal merit.

2.

Assess the risks and benefits associated with alternative solutions.

3.

Engage in collaboration, peer review, and accurate reporting of findings.

4.

Explore cases that demonstrate the interdisciplinary nature of B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 the scientific enterprise.


B. Inquiry and Problem Solving

  1. 1. Select and use appropriate instrumentation to design and conduct investigations.

  2. 2. Show that experimental results can lead to new questions and further investigations.


C B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000. Safety

1. Understand, evaluate and practice safe procedures for conducting science investigations.

STANDARD 5.2 (SCIENCE AND SOCIETY) ALL STUDENTS WILL DEVELOP AN UNDERSTANDING OF HOW PEOPLE OF VARIOUS CULTURES HAVE CONTRIBUTED TO THE ADVANCEMENT OF B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, AND HOW MAJOR DISCOVERIES AND EVENTS HAVE ADVANCED SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY.

Descriptive Statement: Science is a human endeavor involving successes and failures, trials and tribulations. Students should know B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 that great numbers of people from many cultures have contributed to our understanding of science and that science has a rich and fascinating history. This standard encourages students to learn about the B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 people and events that have shaped or revolutionized important scientific theories and concepts.

Strands and Cumulative Progress Indicators

By the end of Grade 4, students will:

A. Cultural Contributions

1. Describe how people in different cultures B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 have мейд and continue to make
contributions to science and technology.


B. Historical Perspectives

1. Hear, read, write, and talk about scientists and inventors in historical context.

Building upon knowledge and skills gained B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 8, students will:

A. Cultural Contributions

    1. 1. Recognize that scientific theories:

      • • develop over time,

      • • depend on the contributions of many people, and

      • • reflect the B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 social and political climate of their time.

  1. 2. Know that scientists are men and women of many cultures who often work together to solve scientific and technological problems.

  2. 3. Describe how different people in different cultures B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 have мейд and continue
    to make contributions to science and technology.




B. Historical Perspectives

  1. 1. Describe the impact of major events and people in the history of science and
    technology, in conjunction with other B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 world events.



  2. 2. Describe the development and exponential growth of scientific knowledge and technological innovations.


Building upon knowledge and skills gained in preceding grades, by the end of Grade 12, students will:

A B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000. Cultural Contributions

1. Recognize the role of the scientific community in responding to changing social and political conditions and how scientific and technological achievement effect historical events.

B. Historical Perspectives

  1. 1. Examine the lives and B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 contributions of important scientists who effected major breakthroughs in our understanding of the natural and designed world.

  2. 2. Discuss significant technological achievements in which science has played an important part as well as B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000 technological advances that have contributed directly to the advancement of scientific knowledge.

  3. 3. Describe the historical origin of important scientific developments such as atomic theory, genetics, plate tectonics, etc., showing how scientific theories develop B. Communication - 46540000000049454320735247420000000000000000000000000000f6d6000100000000d32d485020200000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000, are tested, and can be replaced or modified in light of new information and improved investigative techniques.

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