4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity


^ 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario

Author: Tor-Bjorn Larsson


Date: 22 November 2001



Jana Verboom presents very nicely an approach for assessing landscape fragmentation based upon meta-population information from selected species 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity. This arises some thoughts regarding the operational possibilities right now to assess fragmentation on a European scale, e.g. as regards forests.


First of all: is there a concencus about what 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity we mean with landscape fragmentation? Well, to a certain extent I think most can agree to the definition given by e.g. Heywood et al. (1995): Fragmentation = "The breaking up of extensive landscape features into disjunct 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity, isolated, or semi-isolated patches as a result of land-use change". The effects of this could be considered to be of two kinds: - Firstly you have a mere habitat 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity loss that of course will affect biodiversity, - Secondly you have an additional effect caused by the isolation of remaining patches.


It is the second kind of effects that justifies the concept of fragmentation 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity. This latter effect could even be considered to be the fragmentation effect in a strict sence. No doubt is this a typical landscape-level effect. Whether this always can be addressed by metapopulation 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity approaches may be debated, depending on how the metapopulation concept is delimited (but this debate may be "academical").


Now, the operational issue - from my point of view - is how do we optimally 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity measure and express fragmentation to catch both of the above kinds of effects. For forest it should be possible by e.g. satellite remote sensing of defined landscape segments to present 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity data on total forest area and also the area distribution of forest "patches". This may, however, only partly reflect the second of the above kinds of effect and suggestions of 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity additional, feasible, indicators would be most welcome!


Reference: Heywood, V.H., Watson, R.T., Baste, I. (eds) 1995. Global biodiversity assessment. Cambridge University Press.


A contribution by:

Tor-Björn Larsson

European Environment Agency



^ 4.4.21Monitoring 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity, indicators, modelling -and volunteers

Author: Robert Kenward


Date: 19 November 2001



ABSTRACT: A research priority is to use professional expertise to optimise voluntary monitoring.


In a changing world, monitoring of the status of species and systems 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity is likely to remain as important as the research and management needed for restoration. Resources for such work must partly be financial, but can also be volunteered time. Trained volunteers help greatly 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity in research and management, and can become indispensable for monitoring. Bird populations in the United Kingdom are monitored mainly by volunteers in the British Trust for Ornithology, which processes their data 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity to provide one biodiversity indicator for government. Local Biodiversity Action Plans in the UK also contain much voluntary input. Recognising the importance of volunteers when funds for conservation are limited, English Nature targets a 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity volunteer increase of 20% in its Corporate Plan for 2001-2005.


It is important that volunteer monitoring is well-standardised for compilation and analysis, is practical and is not too onerous (or people stop 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity volunteering!). Crucial roles of salaried biologists are in developing appropriate systems (Watt's goals, methods, analysis and interpretation) as well as communicating results.


For example, monitoring raptor populations has traditionally estimated nest occupancy 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity. However, recent studies in CEH show that less than a third of adults are breeders in some raptor populations. The preponderance of non-breeders was predicted in models by survival 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity estimates from radio-tagging that were much higher than from ringing for pre-breeders (but not for adults), and was cnfirmed by field data. In such populations, a high proportion of birds could 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity be lost to reduced survival (e.g. from cyclodiene or organophosphate pesticides) before nest occupancy would fall. A solution is also to monitor first-breeding-age(e.g. from moulted feathers 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity) when checking nest occupancy.


Experience and improved technologies can simplify data collection. We waited 18 years from the start of radio tagging 350 goshawks (Accipiter gentilis) for ring recoveries to show that loss of many 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity tag signals had not underestimated survival (Kenward et al. 1999). Tags with improved reliability and life then gave equivalent survival data from 146 buzzards (Buteo buteo) in 8 years (Kenward et al. 2000). Models can 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity now be built in about 4 years using 60-80 radio tags, with genetic data to estimate adult survival in the absence of adequate ringing (Wink et al. 1999). As the survival and productivity of radio 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity-tagged raptors can be recorded adequately for modelling with only 3 checks per year, data could be collected by trained volunteers. Noting the second important intervention by Dahdouh-Guebas, GIS such as the Landcover Map 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity of Great Britain (derived by CEH from Landsat TM imaging, Fuller et al. 1994) can be used with the raptor and nest locations to relate habitats to dispersal (Kenward et al 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity. 2001), productivity and survival. Thus, fieldwork by volunteers can now in principle lead to spatially specific individual-based modelling.


This research, now in its concluding stages, may seem an extreme example. However, there are 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity many other ways for salaried biologist to use precise but expensive techniques to develop or improve techniques practical for volunteers. Indeed, radio-tagging can be used simply to calibrate or correct 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity other types of survey for vertebrates. Monitoring by volunteers might help meet the monitoring deficits noted by Cummings and Branquart.


Monitoring obligations for users of wild resources are a way of obtained conservation benefit 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity from sustainable use activities. Finally, research to improve monitoring encourages scientists to work with managers and volunteers, thereby helping to break down the communication gaps mentioned by Conde & Richard, van 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity der Spek and Bruun. Financial encouragement for research that integrates different interests and broadens the base of human resources for conservation should be a sound investment for the future.


References:


Fuller R. M 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity., Groom, G. B. & Jones, A. R. 1994. The Land Cover Map of Great Britain: an automated classification of Landsat Thematic Mapper data. Photogrammatic Engineering and Remote Sensing 60: 553-562.

Kenward, R.E., Marcström 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity, V. & Karlbom, M. 1999. Demographic estimates from radio-tagging: models of age-specific survival and breeding in the goshawk. Journal of Animal Ecology 68:1020-1033.

Kenward, R.E., Walls, S.S., Hodder, K.H 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity., Pahkala, M., Freeman, S.N. & Simpson, V. R. 2000. The prevalence of non-breeders in raptor populations: evidence from rings, radio-tags and transect surveys. Oikos 91:271-279.

Kenward, R.E., Walls, S.S. & Hodder, K.H 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity. 2001. Life path analysis: scaling indicates priming effects of social and habitat factors on dispersal distances. Journal of Animal Ecology 70:1-13.

Wink, M., Staudter, H., Bragin, Y., Pfeffer, R. & Kenward, R. (1999). The use 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity of DNA-fingerprinting to estimate survival rates in the Saker Falcon. Journal of Ornithology, 140:481-489.


A contribution by:

Robert Kenward

CEH & IUCN-European Sustainable Use Specialist Group

Centre for Ecology & Hydrology,

Winfrith, Dorchester DT2 8ZD 4.4.20RE: Biodiversity assessment tools for land-use scenario - B european Platform for Biodiversity, UK.



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