4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface


^ 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue
Although the GOI stipulates that the nine years of basic education should be free, costs associated with schooling continue to be a major burden for families living 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface in poverty. In a few cases, the BEP- supported school does charge fees as mentioned above. (Central 1: Rp 30,000/month; Central 3: Rp 300,000/ year; and West 3 annual registration fee Rp 30,000). The following typifies 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface comments that we heard in all locations: ‘My neighbours are often complaining along with me about the amount of money we have to pay, particularly for uniforms’ (FHH mother, East 2); 'Uniform costs are a 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface real hardship' (mother, East 1); 'as our children get bigger, the costs get higher - uniforms for SMP cost more than SD ' (mother, West 2). In all locations except East 3, students are 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface expected to have at least four sets of uniforms: the national (blue and white for SMP level), school- specific batik, sports
^ Box 10. Strict uniform regulation

BEP-SMP in Central 3 still uses corporal punishment to discipline 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface their students: they beat them using a ruler. The teachers of the school also punish students by telling them to stand in the middle of the school yard, or by telling 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface them to memorize multiplication tables. Violations considered to be punishable by these measures are mostly related to uniform wearing and appearance.

Students can get punished because they wear white shoes, спорт long hair 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface (boys) or for not wearing a ‘jilbab’ for girls. They also get punished for being late for the weekly flag ceremony or for not completing their homework.
and scouts uniforms 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface. In some schools, they are expected to have a fifth set which is muslim dress.


Enforcement of uniform dress code is quite strict in many schools (see Box 10) and children are punished for 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface not conforming. In most of the schools located in the poorer villages, the enforcement of dress code tended to be more relaxed: children wore flip-flops, a few were barefoot and 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface some wore their own clothes from time to time (when the uniform was being washed or had got wet in the rains). In East 3, children only had two sets (national dress and sports 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface) and the school enforced no code regarding footwear. Some families told us that they received some free uniforms from schools, but generally this was only one per year (equivalent to Rp 60,000-75,000). Some indicated 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface that these allocations were мейд from BOS (direct Government grants мейд to schools on a per capita basis which can be allocated according to the priorities of the school). Uniforms were 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface distributed to all potential SMP students in East 1 as a way to encourage them to enrol but this has not been continued since then.

Poorer families tell us that they try to 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface buy 'very large sizes so the uniform can last for more than one year'. Others rely on handed down uniforms from older siblings and neighbours. This way many told us they are able 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface to limit the purchase of uniforms to two sets a year (about Rp 120,000- 150,000). But even with these economies, the cost of uniform is still considered a burden. In the Central study 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface villages, there is a provincial directive that girls must wear jilbab (veil). This adds a further cost of a minimum of Rp 20,000 (for two).





b. SMP level annual comparative costs of education in Rp




HHH 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface

(East 2) BEP school

HHH

West 2

BEP school


HHH

(Central 3)

BEP school

HHH (East 4) BEP school


FHH

(Central 3)

BEP school


HHH

(Central 2)

BEP school


HHH

Central 2) BEP school


HHH

(East 2 )

town

NON-BEP

HHH

(East 3) town

NON-BEP

Uniform ( 4 sets but buy every 2 years

100000

200000

100000

220000

75000

100000

150000

100000

200000

Exercise books

40000

15000

125000

50000

25000

200000

(includes photocopy text books 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface)

125000

20000

200000

Shoes

50000

100000




30000

60000

45000

80000

30000

100000

Pocket money

80000

700000

100000

600000

100000

100000

45000

Can't afford

See below

OSIS

14000







60000










6000

35000

Tuition fee

none







none










960000

none

Transportation

walks

none

none

none

none

none

none

400000

none

School bag













40000

25000

30000







Extra costs

150.000

One off registrat-ion fee




24000
















1,200,000 boarding,

pocket money and transport

Total

284000

1015000

349000

960000

300000

470000

430000

1,516000

1,735000

* Excluding pocket money costs, education costs at BEP supported schools range from Rp 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface 200,000-315,000. Boarding or transport costs at the non BEP schools as well as fees are between Rp 1,200,000 and 1,360,000 in addition.



^ Box 11. Comparative costs for schooling

a. SD level (all BEP schools) annual comparative 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface costs of education in Rp




HHH (East 2)

HHH (East 2)

HHH (East 4)

HHH (Central1)

HHH (West 1)

Uniform ( 4 sets but buy every 2 years)

90,000 (2 sets)

70,000

240,000

50,000

1000,00

Exercise books & stationery

24,000

20,000

50,000

30,000

30,000

Shoes

30,000

Does not have

30,000

25,000

50,000

Pocket money*

Can't afford

Can't afford

400,000

100,000

360,000

Admission fee

-

-

-

-

50,000

Total

144,000

90,000

720,000

205,000

590,000

* Excluding pocket 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface money and cost of snacks, education costs range from Rp 100,000-320,000.






c. Annual comparative costs of education; SMA level-no BEP schools at this level




FHH

East 3

HHH

East 2

HHH

East 2

Uniform ( 4 sets but 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface buy every 2 years

150,000

100,000

100,000

Exercise books




20,000

20,000

Shoes

100,000

60,000

80,000

Pocket money

150,000

Can't afford




OSIS

14,000

6,000

120,000

Tuition fee

250,000

960,000

900,000

Registration

470,000




660,000

Transportation

300,000

400,000

400,000

Lodging & food

1,200,000







Fashion clothes

300,000







Total

2,934,000

1,540,000

2,280,000


^ Pocket Money and School Snacks

As raised in the pilot study, the provision of pocket money is another major cost concern of 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface parents. In only one of our study villages (and one remote sub-village), pocket money is not expected by children. The former is the poorest village in our study and there is one small kiosk 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface serving the entire village which is owned by a teacher's wife. Very few children use this and there is no peer pressure for taking snacks to school. In the small sub 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface-village, children go home if they are hungry. However, in all the other villages in our study the picture is quite different. Even in very poor families, children demand 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface Rp 1,000 per day. Parents told us that their children may 'refuse to go to school if we do not give in to them'. One said: 'You have met my daughter, she seems very 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface quiet and nice doesn't she? But you should see her if I say I have no money for pocket money. She screams and screams and I have to give in to her 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface' (HHH father East 2). Another said: 'Ira's parents work outside (the country) so Ira will go round all her relatives asking for pocket money every day (Ira's grandfather, East 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface 1). A third: 'The neighbours' children throw a tantrum and refuse to go to school (West 2) if the parents do not give them pocket money’.

One HHH child refused to brush his teeth unless his parents 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface gave him more pocket money (West 2). Boys in Central 3 resented the fact that 'if we don't get pocket money we have to drink the water from the school toilet 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface’. Parents in West 2 said 'children used to get Rp 4,000 per day for the boat fare to school but now (they no longer have a boat trip to school) they demand Rp 3,000 for pocket money 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface'. Here, some children protest if they do not get pocket money and play truant from school. Some children in the better-off villages demand up to Rp 10,000 and we observed 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface them helping themselves from parents’ pockets.

In East 1 children complained that one of the biggest problems they faced at school was that 'bigger boys steal pocket money'. They said that those 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface who do not get pocket money get teased (see Box 12). Although mostly used to buy snacks from the kiosks which are either inside the school grounds or line the entrance to the 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface school, some children spend only part of their pocket money and make savings towards the purchase of a mobile phone, mobile phone credit or cigarettes. Kiosk vendors t
^ Box 12. Pocket money demands

A boy 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface of 3rd grade of the BEP supported-SMP refuses to live with his father, who is the village leader because he says he is too strict. He lives with his grandparents about 15 minutes 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface walk from school. His grandfather is a retired teacher and the boy takes notice of him and, according to his father, his behaviour has improved since living with his grandparents. The 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface grandparents do not eat breakfast and they give the boy Rp. 3,000-5,000 pocket money per day for snacks during break. If the grandparents cannot manage pocket money or it is less than expected 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface, the boy gets angry and goes off in a huff pretending to go to school but actually does not. Instead, he crosses the river and passes time with other friends in the 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface urban centre. He comes back home at 12:30 same as the end of school hour. His grandfather thinks that the boy is just coming from the school. (West 2)
ell us that most 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface children buy snacks daily. Children like to buy sweets, crackers and syrup drinks. A few contribute to the cost of after school coaching or exercise books from their pocket money.


All children need to buy 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface exercise books. This ranges from Rp 15,000 to Rp 125,000 per year at SMP level. In some villages, the teachers have been photocopying the text books and work books for their students 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface and charging them for this. In Central 2 this amounts to a weekly cost of Rp 5,000-10,000. Computer classes using the school administration computer and teacher's own laptops are available only to students who can 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface afford it in West 3 (Rp 50,000 for seven classes).

The following are some of the other periodic cost demands that people shared with us:

Access for children with disabilities is rare. Some schools 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface were not accessible for children with mobility difficulties as footpaths were rocky or hazardous. Parents of children with profound hearing disability told us that they do not send their children to school as 4.1.1 Cost of Education as an Access Issue - Preface there is no special provision for them. Some teachers seemed confused during conversations about disabilities and indicated that they had never thought that children with disabilities could be included in school.
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