3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more...



3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824)

3.1 Introduction

Byron’s best poems are Don Juan and Childe Harold. His other works include Hours of Idleness and English Bards and Scottish Reviewers…(See Wang Shouren, 74 and Chang Yaoxin, 197-198).

^ 3.2 Comments on 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... Byron

● Byron’s poetry is one of experience. His heroes are more or less pictures of himself. His hero is known as “Byronic Hero”, a proud, mysterious rebel figure of 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... noble origin. With immense superiority in his passions and powers, he would carry on his shoulders the burden of righting all the wrongs in a corrupt society. He would rise single-handedly 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... against any kind of tyrannical rules either in government, in religion, or in moral principles with unconquerable wills and inexhaustible energies. For such a hero, the conflict is usually one of rebellious individual 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... against out-worn social systems and conventions. The figure is, to some extent, modeled on the life and personality of Byron.

● Byron insisted on authentic—and moral —nature of his work 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more....

● Byron’s poetry exerts great influence on the Romantic Movement. He stands with Shakespeare and Scott among the British writers who exert great influence over the mainland of Europe.

(See Chang Yaoxin 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more..., 197)

^ 3.3 Discussion of She Walks in Beauty

(See the Textbook Selected Readings, 74-75)

● It is a lyrical poem written in 1814 and published in 1815.

● In June, 1814, several months before he met and married his first wife 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more..., Anna Milbanke, Lord Byron attended a party at Lady Sitwell’s. While at the party, Lord Byron was inspired by the sight of his cousin, the beautiful Mrs. Wilmot, who was wearing 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... a black spangled mourning dress. Lord Byron was struck by his cousin’s dark hair and fair face, the mingling of various lights and shades. This became the essence of his poem about her.

(Discuss 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... the questions in the ^ Selected Readings.)

● The first two lines bring together the opposing qualities of darkness and light that are at play throughout the three verses. The remaining lines 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... of the first verse tell us that her face and eyes combine all that’s best of dark and bright. No mention is мейд here or elsewhere in the poem of 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... any other physical features of the lady. The фокус of the vision is upon the details of the lady’s face and eyes which reflect the mellowed and tender light. She has a 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... remarkable quality of being able to contain the opposites of dark and bright. The fourth line starts with an accented syllable followed by an unaccented one, rather than the iambic meter of 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... the other lines, an unaccented syllable followed by an accented one. The result is that the word “Meet” receives attention, an emphasis. The lady’s unique feature is that opposites “meet 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more...” in her in a wonderful way.

● The second verse tells us that the glow of the lady’s face is nearly perfect. The shades and rays are in just the right proportion, and because they 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... are, the lady possesses a nameless grace. This conveys the romantic idea that her inner beauty is mirrored by her outer beauty. Her thoughts are serene and sweet. She 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... is pure and dear.

● The last verse is split between three lines of physical description and three lines that describe the lady’s moral character. Her soft, calm glow reflects a life of peace and 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... goodness. This is a repetition, an emphasis, of the theme that the lady’s physical beauty is a reflection of her inner beauty.

Ⅶ ^ Reflection Questions and Assignments

Reflection questions

1 How 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... does Wordsworth’s “poetry of nature” transform itself into the “poetry of self-consciousness” in “Daffodils”? In what sense, is this poem an epiphany for the speaker?

2 What functions do you think 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... the daffodils (nature) have to the poet?

Assignments

1 Pre-read Shelley, John Keats.

2 Ode to the West Wind.

3 Self-study Samuel Taylor Coleridge.

Ⅷ Major References

1 Abrams, M. H. ed. The Norton Anthology of English Literature, (6th 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... edition), Norton: 1993.

2 Baugh, Albert C. A Literary History of England. 1967.

3 Drabble, Margaret. The Oxford Companion to English Literature. Oxford University Press and Foreign language and Research Press, 1998.

4 陈嘉.《英国文学史》. 北京:商务印书馆,1986.

5 陈嘉.《英国文学作品选读》. 北京:商务印书馆,1982.

6 侯维瑞. 《英国文学通史》. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,1999.

7 刘炳善. 《英国文学简史》. 郑州:河南人民出版社,1993.

8 刘守兰. 《英美名诗解读》. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,2003.

9 罗经国. 《新编英国文学选读》. 北京:北京大学出版社,1997.

10 蒋洪新. 《英美诗歌选读》.长沙:湖南师范大学出版社,2004.

11 隋刚.《英美诗歌意境漫游》.北京:外文出版社,1998.

12 孙汉云. 《英国文学教程》. 南京:河海大学出版社,2005.

13 王佩兰等. 《英国文学史及作品选读》. 长春:东北师范大学,2006.

14 王松年. 《英国文学作品选读》. 上海:上海交通大学出版社,2002.

15 王佐良. 《英国诗选》. 上海:上海译文出版社,1993.

16 吴伟仁. 《英国文学史及选读》(第二册). 北京:外语教学与研究出版社,1990.

17 杨岂深,孙铢.《英国文学选读》. 上海:上海译文出版社,1981.

18 张伯香.《英国文学教程》. 武汉:武汉大学出版社,2005.

19 张伯香.《英美文学选读》. 北京:外语教学与研究出版社,1998.

20 张定铨. 《新编简明英国文学史》. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,2002.

Lecture 10

The Romantic Period 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more...: Romantic Poets and Jane Austin

Ⅰ Teaching Content

Percy Bysshe Shelley; John Keats; Jane Austin

Ⅱ ^ Time Allotment

2 periods

Ⅲ Teaching Objectives and Requirements

1 Help the students understand Percy Bysshe Shelley.

2 Help the students have a good understanding of John 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... Keats.

3 Help the students have a good understanding of Jane Austin.

Ⅳ ^ Key Points and Difficult Points in Teaching

1 Percy Bysshe Shelley

2 John Keats

3 Jane Austin

Ⅴ Teaching Methods and Means

Lecture; Discussion; Multi-media

Ⅵ Teaching Process

1 Percy Bysshe Shelley (1792-1822)

^ 1.1 Life 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... and achievements

(See Chang Yaoxin, 202-204)

● Shelley is an idealistic and prophetic Romantic.

● He sees life on the horizon and gives the vision a tangible form in his poetry.

● He refuses to accept life as 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... it is and tries to envision life as devoid of oppression, injustice, tyranny, and corruption current in the social life of his day.

● He visualizes the birth of an ideal social order 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... based on the regeneration of man and virtue of love. He мейд himself a kind of precursor to the socialist movement soon to sweep across Europe and England.

^ 1.2 Shelley’s Works

● Prometheus Unbound: a 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... lyrical drama, Shelley’s masterpiece, most famous (See Chang Yaoxin, 206-207)

● His short lyrical poems

◆ As for his lyrics on nature, the two best known ones are Ode to the West 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... Wind (1819) and To a Skylark (1820).

◆ His other lyrics on nature are mainly ^ Hymn of Apollo, The Cloud and To the Moon. Shelley’s love lyrics, numerous and widely known, including mainly Love 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more...’s Philosophy, I Fear Thy Kisses, Gentle Maiden, One Word Is Too Often Profaned and When the Lamp Is Shattered.

◆ In his love lyrics, Shelley regards love as the noblest thing in 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... the universe, as the thing of extreme purity and as a feeling of devotion and worship. He believes that the noblest love in the human world may lead mankind to a state 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... of harmony, happiness, peace and perfection. He advocates that love should be elevated high above the vulgar, practical attitude toward it.

^ 1.3 Comments on Shelley

● Byron said of Shelley that he “was, without exception, the best 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... and least selfish man I ever knew. I never knew one who was not a beast in comparison”. Matthew Arnold thought that Shelley’s character was too sensitive for a really great 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... writer and called him a “beautiful and ineffectual angel, beating in the void his luminous wings in vain”. But Shelley was not ineffectual, and he was not so cut off from 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... the realities of life as Arnold suggests.

● Shelley has a shrewd and informed comprehension of the complexities of earthly life. And his generous, unselfish personality also contained elements of sophisticated playfulness and good humor 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more...---he was not beyond laughing at himself.

● Intellectually, he was an immensely learned and well-read man capable of more refined and original philosophical thinking than any other English Romantic, including 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... Coleridge. And as a poet, as Wordsworth said, “Shelley is one of the best artists of us all! Mean in workmanship of style.”

^ 1.4 Discussion of Ode to the west Wind

(Discuss the 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... questions in the Selected Readings)

● Motif of the poem: his desire for freedom and his resolution to sacrifice for the struggle for freedom. To the poet, the west wind, powerful as it is 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more..., is not merely a natural phenomenon. It is a “spirit”, the “breath of Autumn’s being” that can spread messages of freedom far and wide that both destroys and preserves the revival in 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... the spring. The west wind symbolizes rebirth and creative power. To some extent, the west wind is the symbol of revolutionary spirit.

◆ Stanza I---The west wind has swept the foliages 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... off the tree and carried seeds to the earth. She is both destroyer and preserver.

◆ Stanza II---The west wind has awakened the sky. In this stanza, the west wind is compared 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... to the rainstorm that bursts out of the dark clouds.

◆ Stanza III---The west wind has awakened the Mediterranean. The poet thinks that the billow results from the trembling of the sea-blooms 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... (trees) for fear of the coming west wind.

◆ Stanza IV---I would have the same strength and free spirit as the west wind if I were brought up like 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... him. Unfortunately, I was chained and bowed by the vicissitudes of life.

◆ Stanza V---I wish we could unite to fight for a bright future. I want to spread my words among 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... mankind. I’m optimistic about the future. If winter comes, can spring be far behind?

● Images

◆ Life images: seeds, spring, clarion, buds;

◆ Death images: dead leaves, ghosts, hectic, pestilence, dark wintry bed, corps, grave. These life 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... and death images on the one хэнд are associated with the two functions of the West Wind: destroyer and preserver, on the other хэнд, remind us of resurrection and 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... a cycle of life and death

2 John Keats (1795-1821)

^ 2.1 Life and achievements

(See Chang Yaoxin, 207-210)

● Keats was a person of singular determination. His imagination was sensual. He would like to be an Apollo, the god of poetry. He 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... loved “the principle of beauty in all things” and was singularly adamant in his belief that there existed a world of eternal beauty somewhere more real than the life being lived here 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... and it was his job to search for and create it.

● He had a sharp eye for colors and a keen ear for rhythms and a rare capacity to bring out 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... the magic of words. He has been well known for the exquisite texture of his poetry, with its beautiful imagery, sound, and diction. His sole object in life was to 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... look for beauty, and he was a pure poet. He was serious about life and never strove for art only for art’s sake.

● He is also an influential literary theorist. His 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... major ideas on poetry include his notions of “negative capability,” poetic identity (“Verse, Fame, Beauty”) and emphasis on the oneness of truth and beauty (Truth is beauty, beauty is truth).

^ 2.2 Keats’s major works

● A short 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... and miserable life as he has, Keats has produced voluminous literary works. He has written five long poems: Endymion, Isabella, The Eve of St. Agnes, Lamia, and Hyperion.

◆ Endymion (1818) is a 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... poem of 4000 lines. The story is taken from Greek mythology, telling the romantic love story of between Endymion (a handsome shepherd of Mount Latmos) and the moon goddess Cynthia. It 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... is often interpreted as an allegory representing the poet’s quest for an ideal feminine counterpart and flawless beauty.

◆ Isabella is based on a story in Decameron by Boccaccio. The poet retold 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... the tragic love story between Lorenzo and Isabella. The poem expresses sympathy for the oppressed and indignation at human cruelty.

◆ ^ Lamia takes its story from Burton’s Anatomy of Melancholy. Lamia is 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... a serpent maiden. She loves a young man named Lycius. They get married and hold their wedding banquet. Among their guests comes the sophist Apollonius who sees through Lamia’s disguise. Lamia asks Apollonius to 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... keep it a secret, but Apollonius refuses. He reveals Lamia’s identity to the public. Then Lamia vanishes. It is obvious that this story is parallel to The Tale of 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... the White Serpent in China. The emphasis is on the appreciation of sensuous beauty.

◆ ^ The Eve of St Agnes is a young people’s poetic version of Romeo and Juliet, written 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... in Spenserian stanzas, telling the story between the young maiden Madeline and her lover Porphyro). St Agnes is the patron saint of virgins. The poem is full of beautiful imaginary, rich colour and 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... word music. Keats’ fondness for sensuous beauty and his ability to paint exquisite world-pictures find their best expression in his poem.

◆ Hyperion is an unfinished long epic, regarded as Keats’ greatest 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... achievement in poetry. It includes two fragments, Hyperion and The Fall of Hyperion. The poem describes a struggle for power in heaven. Keats wanted to convey in this poem that the victory of life 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... and youth over the forces of decadence and retrogression is inevitable. The old order must give way to the new system—this is the eternal law of nature.

● Keats has 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... written many short lyrical poems, of which the odes and the sonnets are best known. The odes are generally regarded as Keats’s most important and mature works. His odes include: Ode to 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... Autumn, Ode to a Nightingale, Ode on Melancholy, and Ode on a Grecian Urn. His best known sonnets include: Bright Star, When I Have Fear, and The Grasshopper and the Cricket 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more....

^ 2.3 Discussion of Ode to a Nightingale

(Discuss the questions in the Selected Readings.)

● In this poem, Keats not only expresses his raptures upon hearing the beautiful songs of the nightingale and his desire to go 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... to the ethereal world of beauty together with the bird, but also shows his deep sympathy for and his keen understanding of human miseries in the society in which 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... he lived.

● This poem expresses the contrast between the happy world of natural loveliness and human world of agony.

◆ At first, opiates and wine seems to be a way to transcend the human misery.

◆ At 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... last poetry itself is seen the most effective way to release misery and to reach paradise. The bird’s song roused in the poet’s heart a form of 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... spiritual homesickness, a longing to be at one with beauty.

◆ Keats manages to keep a precarious balance between mirth and despair, rapture and grief. Through the power of language, a world of beauty is 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... visualized. But the excitement created through words is also subtly destroyed by them. The ultimate imaginative view evaporates in its extremity as the full associations of the last word “toll” the 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... poet back from his near loss of selfhood to the real and human world of sorrow and death. The title of F. Scott Fitzgerald’s Tender is the Night derives itself from this 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... poem.

▼ Stanza I—I was falling asleep after taking opiates when I heard a nightingale singing in the beechen forest.

▼ Stanza II—I’d like a cup of red wine to 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... soothe my trouble.

▼ Stanza III—The nightingale was singing in ecstasy while I am suffering on earth.

▼ Stanza IV—I wish I could fly to the moon together with the nightingale.

▼ Stanza 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... V—I realize that I was in a beautiful garden full of fragrant flowers.

▼ Stanza VI—The nightingale, regardless of my imminent death, kept singing in an ecstasy. Her melody was floating over the 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... grassland aimlessly since her bosom friend cannot hear it any longer.

▼ Stanza VII—The nightingale’s melody has magical power to arouse the nostalgia of Ruth, a female in 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... the Bible.

▼ Stanza VIII—The nightingale’s melody faded away, but I was still absorbed in it. I was half awake and half asleep.

3 Jane Austen (1775-1817)

^ 3.1 Bibliographical introduction

● Jane Austen was born in 1775 at Steventon, Hampshire 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more.... She was the younger daughter and the seventh child of a family of eight children. Austen briefly attended boarding school in Oxford, Southampton and Reading.

● From the age of 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... ten, her education was taken by her elder brothers and her father. Austen lived at uneventful life, passing the great part of it at her birth place and at Kent.

● Her development as 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... a novelist was slow and painstaking. She started writing novels at about twenty, but each of them underwent revision and none was published at once.

● Of her eight novels, only four 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... appeared in her lifetime: ^ Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814) and Emma (1815). Northanger Abbey and Persuasion came out after her death. And the other two novels were left unfinished. On 18 July, 1817, at 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... the age of forty-two, she died in her sister’s arms in Winchester.

^ 3.2 Comments on Austen

● Jane Austen is a writer of the eighteenth century, though she lives in the nineteenth century 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... England. She holds the ideal of the landlord class in politics, religion and moral principles; and her works show clearly her firm belief in the predominance of reason over passion 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more..., the sense of responsibility, good manners and clear-sighted judgment. And in style, she is a neoclassicism advocator, upholding those traditional ideas of order, reason, proportion and gracefulness in novel writing.

● Austen’s 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... work has a very narrow literary field.

◆ The subject matter, the character range, the social setting, and plots are all restricted to the provincial life of the late 18th century England, concerning three or 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... four landed gentry families with their routine life.

◆ With trenchant observation and in meticulous detail, she presents the quiet, day-to-day life of the upper-middle-class English. She 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... is particularly preoccupied with the relationship between men and women in love.

◆ Stories of love and marriage provide the major themes in all her novels, in which all characters are always playing an active 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... part. In their pursuit of a marriage, they are usually categorized into three types according to their different attitudes: those who would marry for material wealth and social position, those 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... who would marry just for beauty and passion, and those who would marry for true love with a consideration of the partner’s merit as well as his economical and social status. In another 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... word, Austen tries to say that it is wrong to marry just for money or for beauty, but it is also wrong to marry without it.

● Her novels show a wealth 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... of humor, wit and delicate satire, as can be seen from her characterization of Mr. Bennet in ^ Pride and Prejudice.

● Her style is easy and effortless, a perfect example of 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... what De Quincey (English essayist and critic, best-known for his autobiography Confessions of an English Opium Eater《一个英国鸦片服用者的自白》。) meant when he said that we should have to turn to the prose of the cultivated 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... gentlewoman for English uncorrupted by slang and cant of the world.

● Her novels are mostly concerned with young women’s social growth and self-discovery. Nearly all of them explore a 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... consistent theme that maturity is achieved through the loss of illusions. To some extent, her novels belong to the tradition of Bildungsroman (a novel of growth or development, telling a story about 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... a young person growing from innocence to experience and from immaturity to maturity).

^ 3.3 Selected Reading: Pride and Prejudice

(Discuss the questions in the Selected Readings.)

● There is little action in this novel. It 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... is famous for its detailed study of everyday life and its wonderful characterization.

● The portrayal of the characters is amazingly varied and colourful.

◆ The gallery of women here is simply glittering. Mrs 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more.... Bennet is beautiful, ignorant, and snobbish. Her only business is to marry her daughters to wealthy young men. Jane Bennet is a serene, reticent beauty, Elizabeth the spirited, vocal beauty, Lydia a spoiled 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... brat, innocent and hopeless silly and romantic, Charlotte Lucas, plain, practical, and mistress of her own life.

◆ In addition, the portraits of the men are no less noteworthy. Mr. Bennet is 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... kind-hearted, humorous, eccentric, but a bit pedantic; Darcy’s personality is complex. Mr. Bingley is good-natured, impressionable; Mr. Collins is mediocre, a mixture of pomposity and humility; Mr. Wickham is the 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... rake and villain of the novel.

● In this novel, three kinds of motivations of or attitudes towards marriage are presented for manifestation.

◆ First, there is marriage merely for fortune,money 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... and social rank.

◆ The second is the tendency to marry for beauty,attraction and passion regardless of economic conditions or personal merits. This is generally known as “love at first sight”.

◆ Lastly comes 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... the ideal marriage, which is a love match with considerations of the lover’s personal merits and economic conditions.

By presenting such three kinds of motivations of marriage, Jane Austen tries to say that 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... it is wrong to marry just for money or for beauty, but it is also wrong to marry without consideration of economic conditions.

Ⅶ ^ Reflection Questions and Assignments

Reflection questions

1 In 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... what way are nature and imagination related in Ode to the West Wind?

2 As “the trumpet of prophecy, “what does the West Wind predict in physical reality? How do you understand it symbolically?

3 In ^ Ode 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... to a Nightingale, what images of sound, sight, smell, taste, or touch have led you on a journey of the imagination back to some remembered past occurrence?

4 Comment on the epigram 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... “beauty is truth, truth is beauty” in the Ode on a Grecian Urn.

5 Do you think Chapter 1 in Pride and Prejudice is a good opening? Justify yourself.

Assignments

1 Read Ode on 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... a Grecian Urn.

2 Pre-read Victorian Period

3 Pre-read Charles Dickens.

Ⅷ Major References

1 Abrams, M. H. ed. The Norton Anthology of English Literature, (6th edition), Norton: 1993.

2 Baugh, Albert C. A Literary History of 3 George Gordon Byron (1788-1824) - Literature in the widest sense is just about anything written. But in the more... England. 1967.

3 Drabble, Margaret. The Oxford Companion to English Literature. Oxford University Press and Foreign language and Research Press, 1998.

4 陈嘉.《英国文学史》. 北京:商务印书馆,1986.

5 陈嘉.《英国文学作品选读》. 北京:商务印书馆,1982.

6 侯维瑞. 《英国文学通史》. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,1999.

7 刘炳善. 《英国文学简史》. 郑州:河南人民出版社,1993.

8 刘守兰. 《英美名诗解读》. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,2003.

9 罗经国. 《新编英国文学选读》. 北京:北京大学出版社,1997.

10 蒋洪新. 《英美诗歌选读》.长沙:湖南师范大学出版社,2004.

11 隋刚.《英美诗歌意境漫游》.北京:外文出版社,1998.

12 孙汉云. 《英国文学教程》. 南京:河海大学出版社,2005.

13 王佩兰等. 《英国文学史及作品选读》. 长春:东北师范大学,2006.

14 王松年. 《英国文学作品选读》. 上海:上海交通大学出版社,2002.

15 王佐良. 《英国诗选》. 上海:上海译文出版社,1993.

16 吴伟仁. 《英国文学史及选读》(第二册). 北京:外语教学与研究出版社,1990.

17 杨岂深,孙铢.《英国文学选读》. 上海:上海译文出版社,1981.

18 张伯香.《英国文学教程》. 武汉:武汉大学出版社,2005.

19 张伯香.《英美文学选读》. 北京:外语教学与研究出版社,1998.

20 张定铨. 《新编简明英国文学史》. 上海:上海外语教育出版社,2002.

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