2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work


^ 2AC-Impact Calc

Abandoning the state worse than endorsing it

Michael Walzer, BA Brandeis, PhD Harvard, ,Response to: The Military State of America and the Democratic Left, Dissent Vol. 57 No 1, Winter 2010

He thinks 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work that the most important thing happening in the world today is the growth of international institutions and the erosion of state sovereignty. But, again, he never tells us how or where this is "happening 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work." Right now, no political leader in his right mind would entrust the safety of his people to any international organization. Right now, what the most oppressed and impoverished people in the world 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work most urgently need is a decent and effective sovereign state. This is obviously true for Tibetans, Kurds, and Palestinians, but it is also true of people across Africa and in 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work many parts of Asia, living in failed states, ruled by warlords, without effective police, without welfare systems or functioning schools. In the world as it is today, only sovereign states can provide these 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work services. But Jim wants to get past state sovereignty. Maybe one day there will be pleasant pastures "beyond" the state. Right now, there is only a wasteland.


Their psychology claims are nonsense 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work- can’t explain the actual track record of war

David Kagan, Former Dean of Yale, currently ^ Sterling Professor of Classics and History at Yale MA Brown, PhD Ohio State, NATIONAL AFFAIRS FROM 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work ISSUE NUMBER 78 - WINTER 1985

This essay is typical in its rejection of the particular in favor of the general, in its search for unconscious and uncontrolled motives to the neglect of the conscious and purposeful 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work motives of people, in its rejection of the willed and rational in favor of the non-rational or irrational. Its authors make no claim to originality, and allow that their theory may seem 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work to be nothing more than enlightened common sense. But in fact it is an attack on common sense. The reader may have thought wars were the results of ignorance, bad 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work character, or evil intentions—I mean fear, suspicion, greed, jealousy, and hatred—but they are really the results of inevitable ambivalence leading to morbid anxiety which is transformed into displaced or projected aggression, over 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work all of which the individual has no control. And if this seems arcane, the reader can fall back on the real teaching of this essay—that wars are caused by various 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work things. Like the other scientizing students of society, the authors leave the crucial questions not only unanswered but unasked. Presumably, people are always repressing, displacing, and projecting their aggressive feelings 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work. Why do these processes lead to war at some times and not at others? And if we leave cloudcuckooland for a moment, we soon recognize that the decisions that produce wars are not мейд by 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work great masses of psychologically disturbed people but by a small number of leaders charged with the conduct of foreign affairs. A proper theory ought to consider what moves such people 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work to bring on war. If they are moved by forces such as those I have discussed, it should be possible to show that they are, and to show how they are 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work. If they merely respond to popular feeling, we should be told precisely how, when, and why they do. Statesmen who make decisions usually offer reasoned explanations for their actions. If the stated reasons are false 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work, as they often are, should we not seek unstated reasons before abandoning reason altogether? (p. 50-51)

^ 2AC Value To Life
Sanctity more important than quality of life

William Federer is a best-selling 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work author and president of Amerisearch Inc. 10-18-03 http://www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=35138

Even before the rise of Adolf Hitler's Third Reich, the way for the gruesome 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work Nazi Holocaust of human extermination and cruel butchery was being prepared in the 1930 German Weimar Republic through the medical establishment and philosophical elite's adoption of the "quality of life" concept in 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work place of the "sanctity of life." The Nuremberg trials, exposing the horrible Nazi war crimes, revealed that Germany's trend toward atrocity began with their progressive embrace of the Hegelian doctrine of "rational utility," where 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work an individual's worth is in relation to their contribution to the state, rather than determined in light of traditional moral, ethical and religious values. This gradual transformation of national public 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work opinion, promulgated through media and education, was described in an article written by the British commentator Malcolm Muggeridge entitled "The Humane Holocaust" and in an article written by former United States Surgeon General 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work, C. Everett Koop, M.D., entitled "The Slide to Auschwitz," both published in The Human Life Review, 1977 and 1980 respectively. Muggeridge stated: "Near at хэнд, we have been accorded, for those 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work that have eyes to see, an object lesson in what the quest for 'quality of life' without reference to 'sanctity of life' can involve ... [namely] the great Nazi Holocaust, whose TV presentation 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work has lately been harrowing viewers throughout the Western world. In this televised version, an essential consideration has been left out – namely, that the origins of the Holocaust lay, not in Nazi 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work terrorism and anti-Semitism, but in pre-Nazi Weimar Germany's acceptance of euthanasia and mercy-killing as humane and estimable. ... "It took no more than three decades to transform a war crime into 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work an act of compassion, thereby enabling the victors in the war against Nazism to adopt the very practices for which the Nazis had been solemnly condemned at Nuremberg." The transformation followed 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work thus: The concept that the elderly and terminally ill should have the right to die was promoted in books, newspapers, literature and even entertainment films, the most popular of which were entitled "Ich 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work klage an (I accuse)" and "Mentally Ill."

One euthanasia movie, based on a novel by a National Socialist doctor, actually won a prize at the world-famous Venice Film Festival 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work! Extreme hardship cases were cited, which increasingly convinced the public to morally approve of euthanasia. The medical profession gradually grew accustomed to administering death to patients who, for whatever reasons, felt their low "quality 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work of life" rendered their lives not worth living, or as it was put, lebensunwerten Lebens, (life unworthy of life). In an Associated Press release published in the New York Times Oct. 10, 1933, entitled 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work "Nazi Plan to Kill Incurables to End Pain; German Religious Groups Oppose Move," it was stated: "The Ministry of Justice, in a detailed memorandum explaining the Nazi aims regarding the German 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work penal code, today announced its intentions to authorize physicians to end the sufferings of the incurable patient. The memorandum ... proposed that it shall be possible for physicians to end the tortures of incurable 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work patients, upon request, in the interest of true humanity. "This proposed legal recognition of euthanasia – the act of providing a painless and peaceful death – raised a number of fundamental problems of 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work a religious, scientific and legal nature. The Catholic newspaper Germania hastened to observe: 'The Catholic faith binds the conscience of its followers not to accept this method.' ... In Lutheran circles, too, life is 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work regarded as something that God alone can take. ... Euthanasia ... has become a widely discussed word in the Reich. ... No life still valuable to the State will be wantonly destroyed." Nationalized health 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work care and government involvement in medical care promised to improve the public's "quality of life." Unfortunately, the cost of maintaining government medical care was a contributing factor to the growth 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work of the national debt, which reached astronomical proportions. Double and triple digit inflation crippled the economy, resulting in the public demanding that government cut expenses. This precipitated the 1939 order to cut federal expenses. The 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work national socialist government decided to remove "useless" expenses from the budget, which included the support and medical costs required to maintain the lives of the retarded, insane, senile, epileptic, psychiatric 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work patients, handicapped, deaf, blind, the non-rehabilitatable ill and those who had been diseased or chronically ill for five years or more. It was labeled an "act of mercy" to "liberate them through 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work death," as they were viewed as having an extremely low "quality of life," as well as being a tax burden on the public. The public psyche was conditioned for this, as even school math 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work problems compared distorted medical costs incurred by the taxpayer of caring for and rehabilitating the chronically sick with the cost of loans to newly married couples for new housing 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work units. The next whose lives were terminated by the state were the institutionalized elderly who had no relatives and no financial resources. These lonely, forsaken individuals were needed by no one and would be 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work missed by no one. Their "quality of life" was considered low by everyone's standards, and they were a tremendous tax burden on the economically distressed state. The next to be eliminated were 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work the parasites on the state: the street people, bums, beggars, hopelessly poor, gypsies, prisoners, inmates and convicts. These were socially disturbing individuals incapable of providing for themselves whose "quality of life 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work" was considered by the public as irreversibly below standard, in addition to the fact that they were a nuisance to society and a seed-bed for crime. The liquidation grew 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work to include those who had been unable to work, the socially unproductive and those living on welfare or government pensions. They drew financial support from the state, but contributed nothing financially back. They were 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work looked upon as "useless eaters," leeches, stealing from those who worked hard to pay the taxes to support them. Their unproductive lives were a burden on the "quality of life 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work" of those who had to pay the taxes. The next to be eradicated were the ideologically unwanted, the political enemies of the state, religious extremists and those "disloyal" individuals considered to be holding the 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work government back from producing a society which functions well and provides everyone a better "quality of life." The moving biography of the imprisoned Dietrich Bonhoffer chronicled the injustices. These individuals also 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work were a source of "human experimental material," allowing military medical research to be carried on with human tissue, thus providing valuable information that promised to improve the nation's health. Finally, justifying their 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work actions on the purported theory of evolution, the Nazis considered the German, or "Aryan," race as "ubermenschen," supermen, being more advanced in the supposed progress of human evolution. This resulted in the twisted 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work conclusion that all other races, and in particular the Jewish race, were less evolved and needed to be eliminated from the so-called "human gene pool," ensuring that future 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work generations of humans would have a higher "quality of life." Dr. Koop stated: "The first step is followed by the second step. You can say that if the first step is moral then 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work whatever follows must be moral. The important thing, however, is this: Whether you diagnose the first step as being one worth taking or being one that is precarious rests entirely on what the 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work second step is likely to be. ... I am concerned about this because when the first 273,000 German aged, infirm and retarded were killed in gas chambers there was no outcry from 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work that medical profession either, and it was not far from there to Auschwitz." Can this holocaust happen in America? Indeed, it has already begun. The idea of killing a person and calling 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work it "death with dignity" is an oxymoron. The "mercy-killing" movement puts us on the same path as pre-Nazi Germany. The "quality of life" concept, which eventually results in the Hegelian utilitarian attitude 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work of a person's worth being based on their contribution toward perpetuating big government, is in stark contrast to America's founding principles. This philosophy which lowers the value of 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work human life, shocked attendees at the Governor's Commission on Disability, in Concord, N.H., Oct. 5, 2001, as they heard the absurd comments of Princeton University professor Peter Singer. The Associated Press reported Singer's comments 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work: "I do think that it is sometimes appropriate to kill a human infant," he said, adding that he does not believe a newborn has a right to life until it 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work reaches some minimum level of consciousness. "For me, the relevant question is, what makes it so seriously wrong to take a life?" Singer asked. "Those of you who are not vegetarians are responsible 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work for taking a life every time you eat. Species is no more relevant than race in making these judgments." Singer's views, if left unchecked, could easily lead to a repeat 2AC-Impact Calc - Summer k work of the atrocities of Nazi Germany, if not something worse.


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