24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional”


24. Debt among incarcerated substance users. Kristy A Martire, National Drug and Alcohol Research Centre, University of New South Wales; Sandra Sunjic, Justice Health; Libby Topp, Centre for Health Research in Criminal Justice, Justice Health 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional”; Devon Indig, Centre for Health Research in Criminal Justice, Justice Health

Debt has been identified as a barrier to the successful reentry of prisoners. This study provides a comprehensive snapshot of debt among 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” substance using offenders incarcerated in New South Wales, Australia. Ninety-seven percent of participants (N = 156) reported some form of debt, most often to the government department responsible for fines and court 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional”-costs (State Debt Recovery Office; M = AU$8,569). These debts were estimated to take an average of 11-years to repay and were perceived to have large negative impacts on both employment and relationships 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional”. Associated helplessness and anxiety in 40% of cases has negative implications for reentry prospects.

^ 25. Deliberation Style, Jury Satisfaction, Conformity, and Deliberation Quality. Megan R Kienzle, University of Florida; Lora Levett, University of Florida

Previous research has 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” demonstrated that juries typically deliberate in an evidence driven or verdict driven style. In this study, we investigated whether deliberation style affected jury satisfaction, the type of conformity occurring in jury 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” deliberation, and the quality of deliberation. Preliminary results show that manipulating deliberation style did not affect juror satisfaction. In addition, jurors who conformed due to normative influence were no more likely 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” to come from verdict driven versus evidence driven juries. Qualitative results and implications for understanding the process of jury deliberation will also be discussed.

^ 26. A Systematic Overview of Psychiatric Advance Directive 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” Legislation. Ashley Harron, Widener University/School of Law

Psychiatric advance directives now exist throughout the United States. Some states created new legislation while others simply modified medical advance directive law to cover mental 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” health situations. This paper offers a systematic overview of psychiatric advance directive legislation throughout the states. Similarities and differences are explored as a function of time and approach. Practical ramifications of the statutes are 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” addressed with a special фокус towards clinical application. The clinical efficacy of psychiatric advance directives, both within and across states, has been a pressing concern. A comprehensive overview of existing 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” legislation is crucial to advance this field towards answering these issues.

^ 27. Effects of Defendant and Victim Race on Jurors' Likelihood to Conform During Jury Deliberations. Margaret C. Stevenson, University of Evansville; Brad L. Lytle 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional”, University of Illinois at Chicago; Amy Smith, University of Evansville; Katlyn M. Sorenson, University of Evansville; Ady Sekely, University of Evansville; Brent Sigler, University of Evansville

We investigated effects of defendant 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” and victim race on mock jurors' likelihood to conform during jury deliberations when expressing a minority verdict preference. Research shows that people are less confident in decision-making when they have more information to consider 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional”. Due to in-group/out-group biases, non-Black participants might feel that they have less information about Black defendants than White defendants. Thus, non-Black participants might feel more confident 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” in their verdict and conform less when defendants and victims are Black than White. Our hypotheses were supported: Participants were more confident and conformed less when the defendant and victim 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” were Black than White.

^ 28. Development of conduct problems in girls: Differential predictions regarding the role of pubertal timing and transitional stress. Cedar W. O'Donnell, NC Department of Corrections; Paul J. Frick, University of 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” New Orleans; Persephanie Silverthorn, University of New Orleans

The study examines the role of early pubertal timing in the development of conduct problems in girls. Deferential predictions мейд by competing theoretical models were 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” tested in a community sample of 202 school-aged children. Participants (87 males and 115 females) ranged in age from 10 to 17 years old (M = 13.16) and were primarily African-American (60%). Data was also collected 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” from the students' parents and teachers. Results indicated that early pubertal maturation is a risk factor for conduct problems in girls, and pubertal development interacts with emotion regulation problems to place girls at high risk 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” for deviant behavior.

^ 29. Trauma Exposure, World Assumptions and Coping Resources in Youthful Offenders. Matthew Stimmel, M.A., Fordham University; Tina Marie Maschi, Fordham University; Areen O'Mary, Fordham

Juvenile and adult offenders report 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” high prevalence of trauma exposure and PTSD symptoms. Trauma survivors not only may develop serious psychological disorders but also less severe psychological changes in how they perceive themselves and the world 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional”. There is no known research that focuses on trauma exposure and world assumptions or coping resources in a subset of adult offenders, specifically "youthful offenders" ages 18-24 years old. This study 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” fills those gaps by examining the impact of trauma on the world assumptions and coping resources of youthful offenders. Preliminary findings indicate that cumulative trauma significantly predicted disruptions in youthful offenders' world assumptions.

^ 30. Disclosure and 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” Nondisclosure of Witnessing Domestic Violence: Circumstances and Predictors. Bette Bottoms, University of Illinois at Chicago; Carrie E Reynolds, University of Illinois at Chicago; Tisha Wiley, University of Illinois at Chicago; Michelle A 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” Epstein, University of Illinois at Chicago

We will present findings from a retrospective survey study examining the disclosure of witnessing domestic violence during childhood. Our sample was large and ethnically diverse (N 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” = 1679). Results indicate that a substantial minority of victims never disclose (29%), and very few (7%) disclose in ways that lead to legal intervention. We will detail the circumstances of disclosure and test theoretically derived 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” hypotheses concerning factors that predict disclosure. For context, we will present the rates and circumstances of disclosure in comparison to the disclosure of childhood sexual, physical, and emotional maltreatment.

^ 31. Psychosocial maturity 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” and aggression in adolescents and young adults. Sarah Mordell, Simon Fraser University; Jodi Viljoen, Simon Fraser University; Ronald Roesch, Simon Fraser University

This study tested the relationship between psychosocial maturity (PM) and 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” aggression, including four types of aggression. Specific components of PM (temperance, interpersonal skills) were hypothesized to predict types of aggression (reactive, instrumental) based on prior research. Participants were 183 high school and university students 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional”. The study confirmed a relationship between PM and aggression, which extended to all four types of aggression. The expected relationship between temperance and reactive aggression was confirmed, but not for interpersonal 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” skills and instrumental aggression. These findings further emphasize the need for research on psychosocial immaturity and the role it might play in various negative outcomes.

^ 32. Putting Science in Diversity Training. Kim MacLin, University 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” of Northern Iowa; Otto MacLin, University of Northern Iowa

Diversity workshops are a requirement for employees in a variety of workplace settings. They often range from campy and 'huggy feely' to grim and overly 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” serious. We report on a strategy we have used in diversity workshops that is effective at communicating social science concepts and legal information about discrimination. By presenting the science behind 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” stereotyping, prejudice and discrimination, we found that participants leave with a clear understanding of the psychological/legal factors involved and report a more satisfying experience compared to traditional workshops. Data from three workshops 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” will be presented along with details of information presented during the sessions.

^ 33. Examining the Factors That Influence the Believability of a False Confession. Heather A Butler, Claremont Graduate University; Netta Shaked-Schroer 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional”, Claremont Graduate University; Mark Costanzo, Claremont McKenna College

In court, the presentation modality of a confession may influence juror perceptions of the believability of the confession, but the contributions of other factors 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” (e.g., remorse, detail, motive, apology, etc.) are not widely understood. Interrogation presentation modality (audio, video) and interrogation coerciveness (low, high) were manipulated to explore how these factors may contribute to wrongful convictions. Mock jurors 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” (N = 110) reported that the defendant's expression of remorse and apology were more influential when presented in audio than video modality. The combination of several factors (e.g., interrogation 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” length, motive, forensic evidence) explained 77% of the variance in verdict decisions.

^ 34. Can an emotional courtroom audience enhance jurors' evaluation of evidence strength? Dawn McQuiston, Arizona State University; Sean Jules, Arizona State University; Amy Douglass, Bates 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” College; Jessica Garcia, Arizona State University

Although anecdotal evidence suggests that the presence of the victim's family affects jurors' judgments of the defendant, little empirical research has addressed this question. This 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” study examined the impact of families on perceptions of the defendant, and how an emotional audience affects' judgments concerning evidence. Mock jurors read a summary of a homicide trial including statements 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” describing the victim's family as emotional, stoic, or not present during the trial, along with evidence against the defendant described as strong or circumstantial. Preliminary results indicate that an emotional audience 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” affects mock jurors' perceptions of defendant guilt and strength of the evidence.

^ 35. Exploring Liars' Construction Strategies. Drew Leins, Florida International University; Ronald Fisher, Florida International University; Stephen J. Ross, Florida International 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” University; Brian Stephen Cahill, Florida International University

Deception research has not examined liars' strategies for what to present when lying. Knowing liars' construction strategies, researchers can design detection methods that exploit those strategies. Therefore, the following 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” study was intended to explore liars' constructive strategies. Participants were asked to lie convincingly to an interviewer. The participants thought process for creating their lie was then probed. The most 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” common strategy was to use an event or elements of events that they had experienced previously. The next most often cited strategy was to transplant an entire day for the day 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” in question. Applications of knowing liars' strategies will be discussed.

^ 36. Instructing juries on reasonable doubt: Recent Canadian developments. Marc W. Patry, Saint Mary's University

Reasonable doubt has long been the standard of proof in North 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” American criminal cases. In a recent decision, the Supreme Court of Canada held that additional instructions should have been мейд in a case in which a jury had requested additional instruction 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” on the definition of reasonable doubt (R v. Layton, 2009). This decision raises empirical questions about judicial instructions on reasonable doubt, and the influence of comprehension on jury verdicts. It is noteworthy that social 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” science evidence was not cited in the opinion. Implications of the ruling, and suggestions for enhanced integration of psychology and law, are discussed.

^ 37. Tipsters: Information Quality and Memory Processes. Ashley Green, University 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” of Northern Iowa; Heather Caspers, University of Northern Iowa; Ashley S. Sparks, University of Northern Iowa; Elizabeth Perez, University of Northern Iowa; Ryan Tapscott, Iowa State University; Kim MacLin 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional”, University of Northern Iowa; Otto MacLin, University of Northern Iowa

This study focuses on the memory processes of tipsters; those who call in a sighting of someone who is wanted or missing. In these situations, it 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” is possible that a person sees a poster and searches his/her memory for that face, or a person sees the poster and holds the face in memory for a 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” possible future sighting. In this study, posters were displayed in public locations asking for people to call if they had seen the target. Upon calling, the tipster's demographic information, their memory report 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional”, and the time, date, and location of the seeing poster were recorded.

^ 38. Foundational Case Law for the Study of Forensic Psychology. William Robert Holcomb, Alliant International University

Foundational Case Law for the Study of 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” Forensic Psychology - Abstract This study presents a prioritized list of legal cases important for the study of forensic psychology. The list was compiled through a mailed survey of Diplomates of Forensic 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” Psychology (n=50). Top ranked cases include Dusky v. U.S. (1960), Daubert v. Merrell Pharmaceuticals (1993), and Drope v. Missouri (1975). Cases important for child custody and personal injury were ranked in the list, but 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” not as high as the criminal cases. Top ranked cases showed less variation of opinion among raters. The utility of this list and cautions about its short-comings are discussed.

^ 39. The Development 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” of the Correctional Officer Stress Survey (CrOSS). Andrea Mae Bethany Brockman, Nova Southeastern University; Micol Levi-Minzi, Nova Southeastern University; Samuel Browning, Nova Southeastern University; Vincent Van Hasselt, Nova Southeastern University

Working in corrections 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” has been associated with higher stress rates due to the unpredictable nature of the field. Many studies have used surveys which primarily focused upon those stressors directly related to the 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” organizational structure and demographics ignoring the direct contact correctional officers have with convicted felons. To date, no survey has been developed to address correctional officer stress through the use of real-life scenarios 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional”. The Law Enforcement Officer Stress Survey (LEOSS) will be used as a model to create the Correctional Officer Stress Survey (CrOSS), a device that can be used as a stress-screening measure for 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” correctional officers.

^ 40. Gender and Sexuality in a Mock Sexual Assault Trial. Mark Hoffarth, University of North Dakota

Undergraduate students read a vignette of a sexual assault trial with four different versions manipulating the 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” gender and sexuality of the victim. Participants then chose verdicts both before and after a jury discussion. No correlation was found between the gender or sexuality of the victim and the 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” juror's verdicts either before or after the jury discussions. However, a statistically significant amount of participants changed their verdicts to "not guilty" after the jury discussion, which supports previous research findings 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” that suggest participating in a jury discussion mitigates personal biases.

^ 41. The Effect of Character Evidence on Jurors: A Test of the Kin Selection Hypothesis. Tomas C. de Baca, University of 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” Arizona; Scott E Culhane, University of Wyoming; Harmon M. Hosch, University of Texas at El Paso; Stephen J. Ross, Florida International University

This research investigated two types of character testimony: general reputation testimony 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional”, where a character witness testifies about the defendant's reputation, and specific acts testimony, a character witness' testimony regarding specific behavior or incidents involving the defendant. In addition, the impact of the character witness' relationship 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” to the defendant was explored. Three levels of relationship were tested: biological, affinal, and social. There was no significant difference between testimony type and conviction rates. Higher conviction rates were seen 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” when the character witness was biologically related to the defendant, as compared to when one was affinally or socially related.

^ 42. Improving children's accuracy on target-absent lineups: Do the physical characteristics 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” of the wildcard influence its success? Fiona Jack, Otago University; Sarah Walker, University of Otago, New Zealand; Rachel Zajac, University of Otago, New Zealand

Recent research suggests that children's ability to correctly reject 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” a target-absent lineup can be improved when, instead of verbally rejecting the lineup, they can point to a wildcard - a photo of a silhouetted head and shoulders with a 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” large question mark superimposed. To date, however, wildcard silhouettes utilized in this research have borne a basic similarity to the target and other lineup members. In the present experiment, we examined how this 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” might affect the wildcard's success, by manipulating the presence and plausibility of the wildcard silhouette. As hypothesized, the success of the wildcard was highly dependent on its physical characteristics.

^ 43. Testing the Comparability 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” of the Psychopathic Personality Inventory-Revised across Gender and Race. Catherine M. Wilson, Simon Fraser University; Kevin Douglas, Simon Fraser University; Melodie C Foellmi, Fordham University

Comparability of the Psychopathic Personality 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” Inventory-Revised (Lilienfeld, 2005) across gender and race was examined using an undergraduate sample (N=446; female=69%, Asian=50%). The PPI-R demonstrated good internal consistency across gender and race (Cronbach's alphas>.76). Associations with 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” externalizing behaviors were as expected, although stronger for men than women. The PPI-R two-factor model (Benning et al., 2003) was not confirmed, but future analyses (N~700) will use EFA, CFA, and IRT to 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” derive and test models, and their factorial and metric invariance across gender and race. Implications of using the PPI-R across populations, particularly an Asian group that is understudied, will 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” be discussed.

^ 44. The CSI Effect and Need for Cognition: Influence on Verdicts, Verdict Reasons, and Evidence Expectations. Dante Mancini, Saint Vincent College

While popular media and anecdotal evidence have purported the existence of the "CSI 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” effect" on juror decision making, little to no supportive empirical evidence exists. The current study investigated the CSI effect and whether need for cognition (NC) was a mediator. Participants were 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” 207 undergraduate mock jurors who viewed a video recorded criminal trial summary and completed measures of verdict preference, verdict reasons, forensic television viewership, and NC. While NC itself predicted verdicts, viewership did not, nor did 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” NC mediate viewership. However, heavy viewers did report significantly greater dissatisfaction with pro-prosecution scientific evidence and greater familiarity with forensic investigators' tasks.

^ 45. Specific versus general risk assessment instruments 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” in stalking cases: Comparing the SAM and the VRAG. Jennifer E Storey, Simon Fraser University; Stephen D Hart, Simon Fraser University

The recent increase in risk assessment instruments, particularly those constructed for specific offences raise 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” the question of whether specific instruments add to general risk assessment instruments. The SAM and the VRAG are compared in a group of 112 convicted stalkers. Results indicate that while total scores on 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” both instruments are correlated final risk ratings are not comparable. Moreover, the VRAG fails to account for risk factors present in the nature of the stalking offence and risk factors 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” related to the victim, both of which are important considerations in risk management. Results advocate for the use of specific risk assessment instruments.

^ 46. A test of the better memory probe hypothesis: Improving eyewitness identification 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” accuracy. Charles Goodsell, University of Oklahoma; Scott Gronlund, University of Oklahoma; Daniel R Buttaccio, University of Oklahoma

Gronlund et al. (2009) found that suspect position was key in producing the sequential lineup 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” advantage. Specifically, when the suspect was early in the sequential lineup, the only simultaneous advantages occurred, and when the suspect was later, the only sequential advantages occurred. Gronlund et al. hypothesized that participants 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional” were learning as the lineup unfolded. This was explored theoretically using Clark's (2003) WITNESS model by enhancing the memory probe as witnesses progressed through the sequential lineup (Goodsell, Gronlund, & Carlson, under review 24. Debt among incarcerated substance users - How I survived My First Years: Tales of Success as an Early Career Professional”). This was tested empirically by having participants evaluate faces prior to lineup identification. Results show support for this hypothesis.

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