1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics


1.Introduction
Currently, mobile telecommunications technology is undergoing an evolutionary back flip. Modern mobile telecommunications devices are the direct descendents of the in-built car phones of the 1940s. However the devices of today are heading 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics back to the vehicle.


From their humble beginnings as a the device of the businessman, modern mobile phones are now the ‘must have’ device for all. In fact, Fortunati 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics (2001) shows that it was the extensive use of mobile phones in the workplace that ‘dragged’ the mobile phone into the domestic environment, and transformed the device into a ‘personal technology’ that can seamlessly 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics follow the user from the workplace to the home.


As the popularity of the mobile phone has increased, so has the notion of the ‘mobile worker’. The need to work from anywhere has taken 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics the mobile phone out of the office and into other environments, including the vehicle.


Recent research estimates that worldwide mobile phone adoption will reach two billion by 2007 (instat.com 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics 2003). If this figure is coupled with other estimates that suggest that 85 percent of mobile phone owners use their mobile phone at least occasionally while driving (Goodman et al. 1997), by 2007 there could be approximately 1.7 billion 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics drivers worldwide who are likely to use their mobile phone at some point while in control of a vehicle. Moreover, Hahn et al. (2000) estimate that mobile phone users spend 60 percent of 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics their total mobile conversation time conversing while in control of a vehicle.


It is safe to predict that with the worldwide growth of demand for mobile services, and with the increasing notion 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics of the ‘mobile worker’, mobile phone users will expect more from their device. Moreover, mobile phone users will look to their vehicles as not just a mode of transportation, but a mobile work 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics environment. This will lead to increased use of mobile phones in vehicles. As such, in order for mobile devices to be successfully incorporated into vehicles they require a method for safe vehicle 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics integration, which employs advanced human interaction techniques, an architecture for authentication, while requiring limited cognitive demand for operation.
1.1.Thesis Aims
The following are the goals which were examined in this 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics thesis:

  1. Review the relevant literature in the field of automotive telematics, and mobile device integration.

  2. Explore the issues in developing systems for the vehicle environment. Including human computer interaction requirements, and the safety implications of 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics in-vehicle mobile phone use.

  3. Review relevant literature relating to the background of security methodologies.

  4. Outline a security architecture for use on mobile devices of differing specifications. Where the 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics underlying algorithms which comprise this architecture are both proven and mathematically sound.

  5. Extend this system into a protocol for use in a networked environment.

  6. Evaluate the Ang face recognition system for use 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics as a possible user authentication method.

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2.Literature Review
The following chapter will examine the existing literature relevant to in-car telematics products, their design and their фокус on security. This chapter will also explore a 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics range of issues including the legal implications of in-vehicle mobile phone use and the issue of driver distraction. Moreover, the principles of human-computer interaction will be introduced 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics, as this forms the base design requirements for in-car mobile device integration and telematics products. Finally, traditional security mechanisms will be discussed, with particular фокус on the rationale for, and suitability of, their application 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics in the mobile environment, concentrating on methodologies for transparent and limited interaction user and device authentication.
2.1.Background
Automotive electronics have developed substantially since Paul Galvin the founder of Motorola developed the 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics first car radio in the 1930s (Motorola 2005). Today, the scope of automotive electronics has evolved to include everything from entertainment systems, to monitored fleet services, and navigation systems. This new generation of advanced 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics automotive electronics is known as telematics. The average modern vehicle contains approximately twenty computers. These systems are largely ubiquitous, and include functions ranging from the compact disk player in the center 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics console, to the digital displays mounted in the dashboard, and the anti-lock breaking system (Абс), traction control, and fuel injection systems in the motor and associated systems.
2.1.1.Telematics
The term 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics ‘telematics’ was derived from a translation of the term ‘télématique’, which first appeared in a historically significant report entitled L'informatisation de la Société (Nora and Minc 1968) (translated: The Computerisation of 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics Society) presented to the President of France in 1968. In this report the term ‘telematics’ was used to define the merger of telecommunications and computer technology. This definition still holds true today. However 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics, modern day telematics engineering is focused on merging personal telematics devices such as mobile phones, with other telematics genres in an attempt to integrate telematics into the vehicle and 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics other contexts.
2.1.2.Ubiquitous and Pervasive Computing
The notion of ‘ubiquitous’ and ‘pervasive’ computing was first introduced by the visionary researcher Weiser (1999) who states “the most profound technologies are those that disappear. They 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics weave themselves into the fabric of everyday life until they are indistinguishable from it.” This notion is realised by embedding computers throughout an environment. These invisible embedded devices are often connected in a redundant 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics full mesh topology, where they communicate the status of the environment. This allows the overall system to appear ‘smart’ as the environment itself can sense and respond to changes. These systems 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics are ubiquitous as they are unobtrusive to the user and therefore operate independently without user interaction.
2.2.The Automotive Telematics Revolution
A report by the principle analyst of the Telematics Research Group states that the 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics automobile has undergone a vast transformation over the past two decades, shifting from an analogue machine consisting of predominantly mechanical control systems, to a digital car containing mostly computer-based control 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics systems (Juliussen 2003). The notion of the ‘digital car’ is an automobile, which contains multiple dedicated and interconnected computing devices, which together create both a telematics and vehicle control system.


Traditionally telematics systems consist 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics of three basic capabilities (Juliussen 2003). These consist of one or more two-way communication pathways, which can include wireless networking mediums such as Блютуз or 802.11 variants, for interconnection with other 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics devices in the vehicle, to mobile voice/data based networks including GSM, CDMA and GPRS, EV-DO to provide internet connectivity, or a medium to enable real-time services.


The second key capability of 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics an automotive telematics system is a global positioning system that can be used to provide location based and fleet monitoring services. Finally, a computing platform is required for system 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics control and an interface to automotive electronics systems, including system buses and input/output devices such as inbuilt vehicle displays.


This is however a traditional overview of the requirements of a telematics system. As 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics stated in Section 2.1.1 there has been a shift in the telematics industry to provide means for the integration of personal telematics devices in the vehicle.



Figure 2.1. Worldwide Telematics Forecast (Strategy Analytics)1

Figure 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics 2.1 above illustrates market research estimates of the prospected growth of the telematics industry market by 2007. These projected figures include both original-equipment-manufacture (OEM) and aftermarket units. It is also 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics estimated that by 2007, approximately 55 percent of new vehicles sold worldwide will be telematics enabled, compared to just 7.5 percent in 2000 (Zhao 2002).
2.2.1.What is the ‘killer application’?
It is difficult to estimate that there 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics will be a single application that will be the driving force of the telematics industry. The primary reason for this is that the requirements for user services differ in different regions of 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics the world.
Table 2.1. Telematics Market and Technology Trends by Region (2004)2


Table 2.1 above shows how the фокус of the telematics industry changes according to the region (Telematics Research Group 2004). America is primarily concerned with 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics safety and security telematics, due to a relatively low mobile phone adoption rate and an average of only 60 vehicles per square mile. However mobile device integration is an area of growth in the region 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics. Asia is focused on providing advanced navigation systems, as they have overpopulated motorways with an average of 501 vehicles per square mile. Finally, countries in the European Union are more dedicated toward 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics the development of services for mobile device integration in vehicles, due to the high adoption rate of mobile phones in the region and the introduction of laws, which regulate mobile phone 1.Introduction - Secure Mobile Device Integration for Automotive Telematics use in vehicles.
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